According to abbreviationfinder, Athens is the capital city of Greece.
Athens extends on a Plain of the Peninsula of Attica, limited to the south by the Saronic Gulf ; to the west by mount Egaleo; to the northwest by Mount Parnitha; to the northeast by Mount Pentelic ; and to the east by Mount Imitós.
The Municipality of Atenas is located approximately in the center of this plain, but the urban expansion of the 20th century has ended up merging it with the surrounding populations, currently considered suburbs. At the beginning of the 21st century, this metropolitan area comprises 54 municipalities and occupies practically the entire extension of the plain. The municipality of Atenas has 38 square kilometers, but with the metropolitan area it adds about 427, making it one of the largest in Europe, both in size and population. The municipality of Atenas is located in the center of the metropolitan area, and contains the main archaeological remains and tourist attractions.
To the east it limits with several suburbs that are in the skirt of the mount Imitós, like Zografou and Kaisariani. The northern suburbs, such as Maroussi (where the Olympic complex is located), Kifisia, Penteli or Neo Psychiko, tend to be occupied by upper classes, while the western suburbs (such as Egaleo, Rentis, Haidari or Petroupoli) are more popular and include industrial areas. In the long coastline there are several ports, marinas and beaches; some coastal suburbs are Piraeus, Faliro, Glyfada and Vouliagmeni.
To the west are the commercial and industrial ports of Piraeus, while the areas further south-east and further from the center are more oriented to leisure. In addition to the four surrounding mountains, in the interior of Athens there are abundant hills, which makes it a particularly rugged city. The most important are: Lycabet, Acropolis, Filopappos and Tourkovounia; other minor hills include the Arditós, Strefi, Ninfeon, or Mouseion. The Morphology of Athens sometimes causes a phenomenon of thermal inversion, characterized by the increase in air temperature with increasing altitude. The Pollution Problem that is usually attributed to Athens is due in part to this phenomenon.
Throughout the centuries the population of Athens has evolved in a highly irregular way. After being one of the most important cities of antiquity, during the Byzantine period it entered a decline that was accentuated during the Ottoman rule. After being proclaimed capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, the population has grown rapidly, thanks in large part to the waves of Refugees and the rural Exodus ; In recent years, immigrants from nearby countries such as Albania have also increased.
Currently, the metropolitan area of Athens concentrates more than a third of the total population of Greece. According to the 2001 census, the population of Athens was 745,514 residents, and the population of the metropolitan area, 3.7 million. However, the total population is believed to be larger. It is believed that some residents of Athens originating from other Greek populations, are registered in their native place when conducting the census; likewise, there is a population of immigrants that is not quantified. See population of Greece.
The Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport is located near the town of Markopoulo ATTICA, about 20 km to the east of Athens. It has been in operation since 2001, replacing the old Hellinikon International Airport, located in the Athenian suburb of the same name. It is very well connected to Athens by bus, metro, and suburban train, as well as the Attiki Odos highway.
The Port of Piraeus, located 10 km from the city center, is one of the most important in the Mediterranean, both in terms of passengers and freight. Multiple ferries depart from Piraeus that travel the routes between Athens and the many Aegeanislands, as well as international routes. There are also two minor ports, at Rafina and at Lavrio, located east and southeast of Athens on the Attica coast.
Urban public transport
Service Public transport in Athens was renovated and improved on the occasion of the Olympic Games of 2004.
- Metro: it has a modern Metro network, currently made up of three lines. A major extension project is underway and new stations are scheduled to open in the coming years until 2018. The construction of a fourth line is also planned. ISAP and Attiko Metro are the two metro management companies. At the beginning of 2008, the lines cover the following routes:
- Line 1 (ISAP): Piraeus-Kifisia
- Line 2 (Attiko Metro): Agios Antonios-Agios Dimitrios
- Line 3 (Attiko Metro): Egaleo-Eleftherios Venizelos Airport.
- Tram: the Tram has two lines, which run parallel from the center (Syntagma Square) to the coast (in the suburb of Paleo Faliro), where they separate, following the coastline to the east (Glyfada) and to the west (Piraeus).
- Suburban train: this train, also of recent construction, connects the airport with the city of Corinth at 88 km, passing through the Central Station of Athens. The branch to Corinto and very soon to Chalkida among other future expansions are not considered urban, unlike the Airport-Central Train Station service, which is considered suburban as it covers the metropolitan area of Attika.
- Buses and Trolleybuses: the city has a large and modernized fleet, including the largest fleet of gas buses in Europe.
- There are a lot of Taxis. The fleet has about 17,000 units.
The infrastructure of transport have been considerably improved in recent years. The main transport route is the Attiki Odos toll road, inaugurated in 2003, which crosses Attica connecting the airport (to the east of Athens) with the city of Elefsina(to the west), and crossing the metropolitan area several km north of the center of the city, with branches in the east (Imitós) and the west (Egaleo).