The climate is continental with rich and alternating precipitations. Precipitation is linked to the influence of the air masses, still humid, coming from the Atlantic (especially in summer and in the western regions) and of those, cold and dry, that the Siberian anticyclone pushes towards the West during the winter season, and which accentuate the continentality of the climate in the eastern regions of the country. The temperatures, given the altimetric characteristics and the geographical position, are rather low (annual averages between 7 and 9 ° C for altitudes between 200 and 600 m asl), but with significant excursions, more marked proceeding towards E. The morphological structure highlights a particular climatic factor, exposure to sunlight, due to the longitudinal trend of the major valleys: the two sides, therefore, they have considerably different conditions, which affect the distribution of the settlement and crops. The spontaneous vegetation is widewooded extent ; above 1500-2300 m, depending on the area, the woods give way to meadows-pastures, while in the eastern plain there are already steppe-type formations. For Austria geography, please check franciscogardening.com.
Like the demographic structure, the economic one was affected, at least at the beginning, by the ‘trauma’ caused after the First World War, from the territorial downsizing and the consequent loss of the areas most favorable to agriculture and part of those richest in mineral resources. Despite this, the growth of the industry, on a historical fabric of small and medium-sized companies, the technological advancements of the primary sector, capable of high returns, and the traditional solidity of the tertiary sector have determined economic development, at least starting from the middle of the years. 1950, almost surprising, and which showed excellent resistance even in the face of the world crisis of the 1970s. Largely controlled by the state, the secondary sector contributes about one third to the formation of national income and covers over 80% exports, while failing to keep the trade balance in balance.
For energy supply, in the face of the depletion of national coal fields (which are of mediocre quality), there is a tendency towards an integral use of water resources (which already now supply 70% of the electricity produced) and extensive use of natural gas.
The mountainous character of the territory determines a large extension of sterile and unproductive areas, with maximum values in Tyrol and minimum values in Austria Inferior. Agriculture remains an important sector, despite having a limited arable area (17.7%), and guarantees full coverage of domestic food needs, even if its contribution to GDP is still low (2% in 2004). Among the productions, wheat and cereals from the mountain environment prevail, while organic crops are increasingly widespread, which have established themselves as the most important in Europe. Viticulture, horticulture and fruit growing are also practiced, while among the products of industrial interest there is the strong progress of sugar beet, with unitary yields among the highest in Europe. Meadows and pastures have a considerable extension (about 24%), which is why the zootechnical patrimony assumes great importance, especially in the Danubian and Alpine areas; in 2005 there were 2 million cattle, 3 million pigs, about 360,000 sheep and goats, while the breeding of farmyard animals has considerably developed. About 17 million m are obtained from the woods every year3of lumber (2004).
The Austria is fairly equipped with iron ores (main mines: Erzberg in Styria and Hüttenberg in Carinthia), while there is a shortage of fossil fuels, although lignite is not lacking, especially in Styria and in the Mur valley. The steel industry developed nearby; other plants have sprung up in Linz and Krems. The discovery of oil in the north-eastern section of the country and in the Viennese area, where the refining industry is located, was lower than expected; the modest production is supplemented by imports through oil pipelines from Trieste. Rock salt deposits (in the Salzkammergut and in Tyrol); lead and zinc minerals are extracted in Carinthia, copper in the Salzburger Land; magnesite in Styria and Carinthia. The major industrial districts are that of Vienna, the district strip that from Steyr into the Austria Superiore and from Waidhofen in the Austria Inferiore goes as far as the Mur and Miirz lines, the Vorarlberg and Graz districts. The industry is mainly active in the chemical, mechanical, metallurgical, petrochemical and food sectors; followed by the wood industry (sawmills and furniture) and paper, and rubber, textiles (cotton, wool and linen mills), leather, sugar, beer, glass, musical instruments and graphics (Vienna). Another significant sector is that of engineering, which occupies the first place in the country’s exports.
The Austria has a dense network of communication routes: 5801 km of railways, 133.718 km of asphalted roads, 1677 of motorways, 351 km of inland waterways, 31 airports including six international and 4 river ports (Linz, Vienna, Enns, Krems). The widespread organization of the transport system has also contributed to the growth of the tourism sector (19,372,000 admissions in 2004).