Category Archives: Europe

Luxembourg History

Administered by the Romans as part of Gallia Belgica, Luxembourg was exhibited after 400 AD. C. to the Germanic penetration. Included in the Frankish kingdom of Merovingian Austrasia in the early Middle Ages, it was included with the Treaty of Verdun (843) in Lotharingia. In the sec. X Luxembourg became a relatively independent entity, within… Read More »

United Kingdom Arts: Gothic and Late Gothic

The beginning of the Gothic style in England dates back to 1174, the year in which a French master, William of Sens, began the reconstruction of the Canterbury choir (destroyed by fire) in Gothic forms derived from Île-de-France. But apart from this and a few other isolated examples of French derivation, England immediately developed a… Read More »

Sweden Cinema

According to zipcodesexplorer, ioneer of Swedish cinematography, one of the first to treasure the inventions of T. Edison, the Lumière, M. Skladanowsky and later the lesson of G. Méliès, and to found a production company (Svenska Bio, in 1907, in Kristianstad) which even experimented with sound, was the operator and journalist Ch. Magnusson (1878-1948). Taking… Read More »

Sweden Dance and Theater

CULTURE: DANCE In the first half of the century. XVII the French Antoine de Beaulieu introduced the first French-style dances to the court (1638). The creation of the first professional company and a school led by another Frenchman, L. Gallodier, dates back to 1773, the year of the inauguration of the Royal Opera. Frequent contacts… Read More »

Sweden Arts Part II

In 1681, with the nomination of Nicodemus Tessin the Younger as royal architect, a period of clear predominance of the Roman Baroque taste began, which had its greatest expression in the Royal Palace of Stockholm, the artist’s masterpiece.  Swedish painting of the seventeenth century kept the national traditions alive, personified by the portraitists Holger Hansson… Read More »

Sweden Arts Part I

From the century VI to XI developed, especially on the island of Gotland and in the eastern provinces of Sweden, a particular kind of sculpture carried out on stones decorated with inscriptions (runes) or figurative scenes often derived from the Nordic sagas, in a lively and expressive style, even if rude; in the stelae of… Read More »

Sweden Literature Part II

According to softwareleverage, the disturbing interpreter of the changed spiritual climate is JA Strindberg (1849-1912), in whose immense production, lyric, dramatic, narrative, the most contradictory trends of an era are summarized. In his work, external reality, analyzed and crudely portrayed according to naturalistic ways, is reinvented by a lucidly visionary fantasy, by an exasperated subjectivism… Read More »

Sweden Literature Part I

Nothing written about the ancient Swedish literary heritage of the pagan age has been preserved. According to programingplease, Sweden, like the other Scandinavian countries, must have known a rich literary flourishing of an epic-lyric character of which only faint echoes can be found in Icelandic, Norwegian and Danish texts of the contemporary age. The only… Read More »

Sweden Culture

The Sami have roamed Lapland as reindeer nomads since prehistoric times. The rock carvings of Tanum are depictions of hunting, everyday life and the myths of the Bronze Age. Runic writing was in use from the 2nd century AD up to the Middle Ages, and many stone inscriptions have survived. From Sweden from the 9th… Read More »

History of Sweden Part V

Policy change and new challenges The Reichstag elections on September 17, 2006 were won by the bourgeois “Alliance for Sweden” (a total of 48.2% of the votes, 178 seats) under the leadership of F. Reinfeldt (moderate rallying party), who was elected Prime Minister on October 5, 2006 and a four-party government (Moderate Rally Party, Center… Read More »

History of Sweden Part IV

In the 1920s and 30s, economic, social and cultural-political problems came to the fore (school reform, 1927; »Labor Peace Laws«, 1928). The world economic crisis found its strongest expression in Sweden in the collapse of the Kreuger concern in 1932 (Ivar Kreuger ). When PA Hansson came to power (1932), the Swedish Social Democrats began… Read More »

History of Sweden Part III

In Livonia there was resistance to the confiscation of estranged Swedish crown estates, one of the reasons for the Second Northern War (1700-21). August II of Saxony-Poland believed that Livonia could easily be won. Tsar Peter I , the Great, sought Ingermanland, East Karelia and Narva, Denmark turned against the Swedish branch of the House… Read More »

History of Sweden Part II

Swedish monarchs Swedish queens and kings (order and dates are uncertain in the oldest period) Ynglings Bjorn the old man about 882-910 Olof Ring 910-940 Erich VII. Segersäll (= the victorious) about 970-995 Olaf III. Skotkonung (= king of the lap) about 995-1022 An and Jakob about 1022-1050 Emund about 1050-1060 Stenkil family Stenkil (Steinkjel)… Read More »

History of Sweden Part I

Viking Age and Empire Formation In Northern Europe glacial hunting and fishing cultures established already in the Stone Age. During the Iron Age, the south of what is now Sweden was densely populated with North Germanic ethnic groups. The united under the Stammeskönigtum the Ynglinge Svear, the oldest seats in Uppland and the Malaren layers… Read More »

Swedish Modern Music

On the threshold of the 20th century are the works of Wilhelm Peterson-Berger (* 1867, † 1942) with their songs inspired by Swedish folk music, the lyrical pieces for piano and his operas influenced by R. Wagner , including »Arnljot «(1909) assumed the status of a national opera. His generation includes: Wilhelm Stenhammar (* 1871,… Read More »

Swedish Music

Swedish music, about the Swedish music from pre-Christian times (up to the 11th century) there are only inadequate sources from which the use of primitive rattles, flutes, horns and bronze lurs and from the 8th century also of lyres emerges. In addition, literary sources such as the Bósi saga provide information on musical practice in… Read More »

Finland Swedish Literature

Until the conquest by Russia (1809) Finland was considered part of the Swedish Empire and the almost exclusively Swedish-language literature in Finland was considered an integral part of Swedish literature. It was not until the beginning of the 19th century that a remarkable written Finnish literature developed which, over the course of 150 years, pushed… Read More »

Swedish Literature: 20th Century

20th century Under the influence of H. Bergson’s philosophy, the final break with the aesthetics of neo-romanticism took place. The psychologically deepened portrayal of society determined prose in the second decade of the 20th century. Elin Wägner, S. Siwertz and Sven Lidman describe bourgeois life in their realistic novels. Both from a narrative point of… Read More »

Swedish Literature Part II

Classicism King Gustav III , a tireless patron of the arts, wrote dramas and operas, and was instrumental in founding theaters and establishing the Swedish Academy (1786). The academy and its leading members, the poets J. G. Graf Oxenstierna, J. H. Kellgren, Carl August Ehrensvärd (* 1745, † 1800) and C. G. af Leopold, as… Read More »

Swedish Literature Part I

According to historyaah, the Swedish literature includes works of literature in Swedish in Sweden and Finland. Written evidence from the era before Christianization (around 1100 AD) can only be found on the numerous Swedish rune stones. Poetic runic texts, picture stones and rock carvings show familiarity with the heroic saga and allow the conclusion that… Read More »

Swedish Arts: Modern and Present

Architecture The first period of the century is determined by national romanticism and material realism. The Engelbrekts Church (1909–14) by Lars Israel Wahlman (* 1870, † 1952) and the town house (1911–23) on Mälaren by R. Östberg form an independent synthesis of local brick construction and international architecture. Evidence of international neoclassicism emerged after the… Read More »

Swedish Arts: Rococo and Classicism

Architecture During the period of freedom (Frihetstiden, 1718–72), local artists increasingly took the place of foreign artists. Hardly any other architect shaped the art of the period of freedom and the period that followed as much as C. Hårleman. With Svartsjö Castle in Uppland (from 1735), the first example of French-inspired Rococo, he laid the… Read More »

Swedish Arts: Renaissance and Baroque

Architecture According to extrareference, the renaissance reached Sweden during the reign of Gustav I. Eriksson Wasa, but only developed under his successors Erich XIV. And Johann III. The main task of architecture was the erection of royal castles; Most active were immigrant artists (master builder family Parr, the Flame Hans Fleming, * around 1545, †… Read More »

Swedish Arts: Middle Ages

Swedish art, term for art that has emerged since the Middle Ages, after the prehistoric and early historical epoch (Germanic art, Northern Europe). Architecture Most of the Swedish buildings of the Middle Ages were made of wood. Only sparse remains of this, but noteworthy in terms of art history, have survived (Hemse stave church, 11th… Read More »

Malmo and Gothenburg, Sweden

Malmo Malmö, administrative seat of the Swedish administrative area (Län) Skåne and third largest city in the country, at the narrowest point of the sound in fertile Skåne, 301,700 residents, as a large municipality 157 km 2 and 328,500 residents; Numerous museums (including art gallery, art museum, natural history museum), theater, university (founded in 1998),… Read More »

Stockholm, Sweden Cityscape

According to ehistorylib, Stockholm, is the capital of Sweden, between Lake Mälaren and the Baltic Sea, built on skerries, islands and peninsulas and the adjacent mainland, with (2018) 962 154 residents. Stockholm is home to Sweden’s most important cultural institutes: universities and colleges, academies, the Nobel Foundation, the Royal Library, museums, theaters and opera. Stockholm’s… Read More »

Stockholm, Sweden

Stockholm, capital and residential city of Sweden, located at the outflow of Lake Mälaren into the Baltic Sea, on the skerries, islands and peninsulas and the adjacent mainland, (2017) 1.56 million residents, as a large municipality 187 km 2, 962 154 residents. Stockholm is the Evangelical Lutheran and Catholic bishopric and seat of the Nobel… Read More »

Drottningholm Palace (World Heritage)

The castle, which was completed in the 17th century, is located on the island of Lovö in Lake Mälaren. The former summer residence is now the seat of the royal family. The palace theater is one of the best preserved baroque theaters in Europe. Drottningholm Palace: facts Official title: Drottningholm Royal Summer Palace Cultural monument:… Read More »