ECONOMY: INDUSTRY AND MINERAL RESOURCES
The secondary sector, even if diversified, is not sufficiently competitive: it participates for a third in the formation of GDP and employs just over a fifth of the workforce. The regional differences in the industrial distribution are notable; the economic monopoly is maintained by the area around the capital, Santiago, and by the Concepción-Talcahuano conurbation. The industry is mainly linked to the processing of mineral raw materials: copper metallurgy, steel (in Talcahuano and Corral) and petrochemical plants. Other important industries are agricultural-food industries (fish, meat, sugar and beer processing, wine-making industries) and wood (cellulose, paper pulp, printing paper); the paper mills are located in Santiago, Valdiva and Talca. The textile sector is of considerable importance (wool, cotton, rayon, synthetic fibers are processed), as well as the tanning and footwear factories. There is also a chemical industry (caustic soda, sulfuric acid, nitrogen fertilizers), explosives factories for the mining industries, pharmaceutical factories, various assembly plants (such as the one for automobiles in Arica). Finally, cigarettes, tires and cement are produced. § The richest sector of the Chilean economy is by far the mining sector. The oldest mining exploitation concerns the various assembly plants (such as the one for automobiles in Arica). Finally, cigarettes, tires and cement are produced. § The richest sector of the Chilean economy is by far the mining sector. The oldest mining exploitation concerns the various assembly plants (such as the one for automobiles in Arica). Finally, cigarettes, tires and cement are produced. § The richest sector of the Chilean economy is by far the mining sector. The oldest mining exploitation concerns the sodanitro, or nitro from Chile (locally called caliche, whose main by-products are borax and iodine), whose vast deposits are found in northern Chile (Iquique, Antofagasta, Tocopilla, Taltal) and of which Chile held almost the world monopoly; despite having lost its value with the discovery of synthetic nitrates, it always has considerable importance. In the northern and central part of the country there are colossal copper deposits (the main ones are those of Chuquicamata, El Salvador, Andina and El Teniente, to which foundry and refining plants are annexed); since 1982, Chile is even the largest producer in the world. As a country located in South America according to topschoolsoflaw, Chile also ranks first in world molybdenum production; finally, there are good deposits of iron, silver (of which it is the fourth largest producer in the world), gold, manganese, zinc, sulfur, etc. Finally, in the Chilean territory there are numerous other minerals such as lead, borax, cobalt and mercury. Among the energetic minerals, coal is obtained (extracted from the coasts and in the area of the Strait of Magellan), and oil, extracted in Tierra del Fuego and transported by oil pipeline to the embarkation of Caleta Clarencia; there are refineries in Concón, near Valparaíso, and in Talcahuano. Natural gas fields are also located in Pampa Larga, Punta Delgada and Chanarcillo. The potential of the Andean rivers is very rich: over half of the electricity produced in the country is of water origin.
ECONOMY: TRADE, COMMUNICATIONS AND TOURISM
Chile is attempting to diversify export products, previously 80% copper. However, the main exported products are minerals (in addition to copper, iron, nitrates, silver and gold); followed by cellulose and wood pulp, fruit, wine, fish and meat products, wool, chemicals, derived from petroleum; imports mainly concern oil and petroleum products, machinery, means of transport, electronic and telecommunications products, chemicals. Trade takes place mainly with the USA and China (in 2005 a free trade treaty was concluded between Chile and China to eliminate duties on 92% of the goods traded); also with Brazil and Argentina for imports and with Japan, the Netherlands, South Korea, Italy and Brazil for exports. The trade balance in 2007 was in surplus. § The difficult and particular Chilean topography makes the problem of communication routes very difficult. The country is connected from N to S, up to Puerto Montt, by a railway line that connects to the Peruvian network to the N and which is joined by the Pan-American Carretera. Four international trans-Andean lines branch off from this fundamental railway artery, connecting Chile to the N with Bolivia and to the E with Argentina. The road network, of over 85,000 km in 2003 (of which 14,000 were asphalted) is extensive; the most important artery is the Pan-American highway, over 33,000 km, between Arica and Puert Montt. There are numerous coastal port centers: among these Arica and Antofagasta are essentially mining ports, Valparaíso serves the capital, among others San Vicente, Huasco, Talcahuano, San Antonio, Punta Arenas, Magallanes. Chile has numerous international airports; the main ones are those of Los Cerrillos, near Santiago and Arica. § Tourism is growing, mainly to ski destinations in the Andes, Pacific beaches, Tierra del Fuego,