Livestock and fishing
The cultivation of fodder plants with stable breeding, before the world war was in continuous increase to satisfy the need for an ever greater number of meat and dairy animals, required by the increase in population and its improved regime food. It is mainly done in NW Germany, in the Middle Mountains, in the Alps and in the subalpine plateau. In 1930, artificial grasslands and other forage crops occupied 3,376,350 ha. In the territories close to the coasts the area of the meadows exceeds that of cereals. Pasture farming is reduced to the high parts of the mountains, the sands of the Geest (sheep) and the fertile floods of the Marschen.
Statistics on livestock farming show that sheep farming has fallen sharply since 1823. This depends on two main reasons: wool is supplied by the most suitable countries in the southern hemisphere and many grazing lands were reduced to cultivation. Only in Pomerania, Mecklenburg and the Lüneburg Heath does sheep farming still have a considerable extension. Of the cattle, the Lower German breed, prized for its high milk yield no less than for its adaptability, is reared in large numbers on dammed and dried up land (Marschen) of Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover and Luxembourg. The mountain breeds are bred in the subalpine plateau, in the Allgäu and in the upper Baden and are working and dairy animals. In Prussia, meat animals are raised.
Pig breeding is done everywhere, mainly in northern Germany, and has an importance that no other country in Europe equals. Hanover, with 70 or more per sq. Km, ie over 550 pigs for every 1000 residents, ranks first.
The following table shows the size of Germany’s livestock in 1913 and 1930.
In the rivers of Germany (only the Rhine, the Weser and the Warta give a profitable fishing of salmon), it causes illegal fishing, the discharge given to the waste waters of industries and cities, the regulation of the river beds and the intense navigation to steam, the quantity of fish has greatly decreased. This is sheltered with wise provisions, aimed at compensating and maintaining the fish heritage of running waters, while stagnant waters have assumed greater importance with the institutional farms.
Coastal fishing is, at present, more important than deep-sea fishing; however, due to the impetus given to it by the government and private individuals in the last decades and the application of more rational methods, it has also taken on a notable development (herring, sardines, hake, flounder). That of the North Sea is more important than that of the Baltic, which is less fishy because it is less salty, and therefore poorer in plankton, and because the bottom is strewn with erratic ones. The fish caught in the North Sea would have exceeded 2.5 million qq in 1930; that caught in the Baltic Sea would have been only 320,000 q.
According to microedu.net, sea fishing is concentrated in certain ports (Geestemünde, Bremerhaven, Emden, Altona, and several others) of the coast, where there are also establishments for the preparation of canned fish and for smoking (Geestemünde, Stettin, Kiel, Swinemünde, Pillau).
Despite the exposed conditions, the import of fish from England, Holland, Norway and the United States is of considerable importance. The export is mainly directed to the neighboring internal states (Switzerland, Austria, Czechoslovakia).
Hunting is of subordinate economic importance, as large wild species have long since been destroyed. Only in the Bavarian Alps, in the reserves of the eastern region and in the state-owned forests of the Middle Mountains is there still game. In the cultivated fields there are still many hares and partridges.
It is very varied and Germany can still be said to be rich in useful minerals, although, due to the conditions of peace imposed on it by the victors, it has suffered heavy losses and its industries must consequently depend on foreign countries. Before the World War, it could export coal, iron and zinc; at present he can barely satisfy his own needs and must import metals in large quantities. Only in the production of potash did Germany maintain its position. However, its mineral riches are always of great importance, which are in close genetic relationship with the tibular plate structure that we already know. The most ancient soils, rich in coal and metal ores, appear in the raised clods, and in the sunken areas there are also other mineral deposits. Ond ‘ is that different fields coexist at a short distance from each other. This fact is of great importance for the life of industries.
Of the coal deposits, 20% of the Upper Silesian basin still belongs to Germany, the rest to Poland, the Lower Silesian basin near Waldenburg gives 4 million tonnes. per year, the Saxon basin near Zwickau, Ölsnitz and near Dresden provides 5 million tonnes to the anPo. The Ruhr basin gives an annual production of about 90 million tons; the Aachen (Wurmrevier) fields yield 2 million tons. Overall, the annual production of litantrax places Germany in second place in Europe after Great Britain. To these should be added the Saar basin near Saarbrücken and Neunkirchen, which produces around 13 million tons of coal. It is occupied by France for 15 years. Brown coal is found in several places. The largest quantities are obtained from the surroundings of Halle and from the surroundings of Bonn. It matters from Bohemia.
For iron, after the losses of the Lorraine and Alsace deposits, Germany must depend on abroad (Spain, Sweden). But there are many iron ore deposits in its territory, of which the most important are: the country of the Rhine on the edge of the Eifel and in the Hunsrück, the Sauerland (Westphalia), the Upper Silesia near Beuthen, Gleiwitz, the ‘Hesse-Nassau, the Harz and the Ore Mountains.
Among the useful minerals we must not forget zinc (Upper Silesia, Iserlohn, Aachen), lead and copper, which is found in large quantities in the Mansfeld mountains. However, it is not enough for the needs of the electrotechnical industry which makes it necessary to import copper from Spain and the United States of America. And for its industries, Germany has to import several other minerals, such as manganese from British India and Ukraine, pyrites and other sulfur minerals from Spain, Norway and Italy, wolfram from China, tin from Bolivia., nickel from Canada, etc. Bauxite is extracted in the Vogelsberg, but it is also imported from France and Italy (raw aluminum from Switzerland). The quantity of building stones (granite, syenite, porphyry, diabase, marbles, lithographic stones, kaolin, clays). Finally, the thermal mineral springs, some of which are world famous (Aachen, Taunus baths, Baden-Baden, Bad Kissingen, Kreuznach, Wildungen, Pyrmont, and others) must not be overlooked. The following table shows (in thousands of tons) the production of the main minerals for 1913, 1929, and 1930; of zinc, lead and copper is given the metal content of the mined ore. 1929, and 1930; of zinc, lead and copper is given the metal content of the mined ore. 1929, and 1930; of zinc, lead and copper is given the metal content of the mined ore.