In the 1920s and 30s, economic, social and cultural-political problems came to the fore (school reform, 1927; »Labor Peace Laws«, 1928). The world economic crisis found its strongest expression in Sweden in the collapse of the Kreuger concern in 1932 (Ivar Kreuger ). When PA Hansson came to power (1932), the Swedish Social Democrats began to rule for many years (1932–76). The Hansson government (1932–46; 1936–39 in coalition with the Bauernbündler; 1939–45 “Government of the National Collection”) initiated Sweden’s development into a welfare state on the reform-socialist line.
In its foreign policy, Sweden, as a member of the League of Nations (since 1920), supported its efforts to settle international disputes peacefully. In 1921 the League of Nations spoke the Åland Islands Finland too. While liberals and social democrats had enforced strong arms restrictions in 1925, the Hansson government, in view of the growing international tensions, strengthened the country’s armed forces from 1936 and emphasized the principle of neutrality. After the Soviet attack on Finland (1939), according to payhelpcenter, Sweden officially rejected the Finnish request for help, but allowed private aid to be organized. Sweden also maintained its neutrality during World War II. In view of the German occupation of Denmark and Norway (1940) and the German attack on the USSR (1941), Sweden was forced to obtain transit permits for German troops (until 1943) and also supplied National Socialist Germany with iron ore and products from Swedish industry; it took numerous refugees,
Welfare State and EU Accession
In the post-war years Sweden became the model of the modern welfare state under social democratic leadership (Prime Minister 1946–69 T. Erlander , 1969–76 and 1982–86 O. Palme , 1986–91 I. Carlsson ); this was first interrupted in 1976-82 by bourgeois coalition governments (1976-78 and 1979-82 T. Fälldin [Center Party], 1978/79 Ola Ullsten [ * 1931, † 2018; Liberal People’s Party]). After Gustav V’s death (1950), Gustav VI climbed the mountain. Adolf took the throne, followed in 1973 by Karl XVI. Gustav.
After the assassination of Palmes (February 28, 1986), who had made Sweden an advocate for the countries of the Third World and who had acted as an advocate of global disarmament, he was succeeded as Prime Minister by the Social Democrat Carlsson (until 1991); economic problems came to a head during his reign. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden, which was a founding member of the Nordic Council in 1951/52 and joined EFTA in 1960, applied for membership in the EC on July 1, 1991. After the parliamentary elections in 1991, C. Bildt (Moderate Rally Party) Prime Minister of a center-right coalition. The domestic political course initiated by the government in the face of an economic crisis (savings in the public sector, privatization of state-owned companies) led to the dismantling or reform of the welfare system.
In May 1992, Parliament decided to cautiously abandon the traditional policy of neutrality. In the 1994 elections to the Reichstag, the Social Democrats were victorious and again appointed the Prime Minister with their chairman Carlsson. In a referendum on November 13, 1994, the population approved Sweden’s accession to the EU on January 1, 1995 with 52.2% of the votes. With the help of changing majorities in the Reichstag, Prime Minister Carlsson sought to contain the financial crisis. In a resolution (December 1, 1995), the government placed Swedish troops under a NATO command for the first time (as part of the international peacekeeping force for Bosnia and Herzegovina). After Carlsson announced his resignation in August 1995, it was in March 1996 G. Persson elected to succeed him as Party Chairman and Prime Minister; the social democratic minority government he led and supported by the Greens and the Left Party was confirmed in office after the parliamentary elections of 1998 and 2002. In 1997, despite criticism from the European Commission, the government decided against Sweden’s participation in the European Monetary Union (Eurozone) on 1.1999. In April 1998 the Swedish Parliament approved the Schengen Agreement (Schengen II). In February 2002 a new security policy doctrine was adopted with which Sweden (without opening up military alliances for the time being) gave up its neutrality policy in favor of peacekeeping cooperation with other states. The attack on the Swedish foreign minister and euro advocate Anna Lindh (* 1957, † 2003) on September 10 , 2003, from the consequences of which she died one day later, overshadowed the referendum on September 14, 2003 on the country’s accession to the euro zone the majority of the population decided against it (with a turnout of 81% with 56.1% no votes).
Swedish Academy, Swedish Svenska Academies, 1786 based on the model of the Académie française of King Gustav III. Founded society of 18 members (»De aderton«, German »the eighteen«) for the maintenance of the Swedish language and literature; Headquarters: Stockholm; has awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature since 1901 and today around 50 prizes a year. The Nobel Prizes for Physics, Chemistry and (since 1969) Economics and (since 1982) the Crafoord Prize (Nobel Prize) are awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien), founded in 1739 with the assistance of C. von Linné for the care of the natural sciences and math.