Army. – By decree-law of 11 October 1934, and subsequent updates, changes were made to the organization of the army, which is made up of the following elements: General Staff Corps (officers of the General Staff from lieutenant to colonel); Royal Carabinieri (see App.); Military schools (see school: Army school system, App.); Infantry (see App.); Cavalry (see App.); Artillery (see App.); Genius (see App.); Military chemical service run by an Army Corps general and divided into 3 sections (army, air force and navy); Military districts; Military Health Corps; Military commissariat corps; Body of Administration; Military Veterinary Corps; Military automotive service (see automobile: Military motoring, App.); Supreme Court and Military Courts; Correctional Departments and Military Penalty Establishments.
According to TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA, the Metropolitan Army currently includes:
a) Command of the General Staff Corps, headed by the Chief of Staff (Undersecretary for War) on which the deputy chief of SM intendente, the sub-chief of SM for operations and the sub-chief of SM for territorial defense depend;
b) 4 designated army commands,
c) 15 corps (I Turin, II Alessandria, III Milan, IV Bolzano, V Trieste, VI Bologna, VII Florence, VIII Rome, IX Bari, X Naples, XI Udine, XII Palermo, XIII Cagliari, XX Tripoli, XXI Benghazi);
d) 34 infantry divisions: 1st “Superga”, 2nd “Sforzesca”, 3rd “Monferrato”, 4th “Monviso”, 5th “Cosseria”, 6th “Legnano”, 7th “Leonessa”, 9th “Pasubio”, 10th “Piave “, 11th” Brenner “, 12th” Timavo “, 13th” Monte Nero “, 14th” Isonzo “, 15th” Carnaro “, 16th” Fossalta “, 17th” Rubicone “, 18th” Metauro “, 19th” Gavinana “, 20ª” Curtatone and Montanara “, 21st” Grenadiers of Sardinia “, 22nd” Hunters of the Alps “, 23rd” Murge “, 24th” Gran Sasso “, 25th” Volturno “, 26th” Assietta “, 27th” Sila “, 28th” Vespri “, 29th “Peloritana”, 30th “Sabauda”, 31st “Caprera”, 60th “Sabrata “, 61st” Sirte “, 62nd” Marmarica “, 63rd” Cyrene “;
e) 5 alpine divisions: 1st “Taurinense”, 2nd “Tridentina”, 3rd “Julia”, 4th “Cunense”, 5th “Pusteria”;
f) 3 fast divisions: 1st “Eugenio di Savoia”, 2nd “Emanuele Filiberto Testa di Ferro”, 3rd “Prince Amedeo Duca d’Aosta”;
g) 2 motorized divisions: “Trento” and “Po”;
h) 2 armored brigades: 1st “Siena”, 2nd “Milan”;
i) 1 chemical regiment,
l) 1 Aegean Troop Command.
The organization and mobilization, transport and services offices depend on the sub-chief of the SM intendente; the 1st and 2nd Operations Office, Training and History Office, and Military Information Service report to the SM sub-chief for operations; the 13 territorial defense commands into which the nation’s territory is divided depend on the sub-chief of SM for territorial defense. The defense commands are divided, in turn, into 28 military zone commands
The establishment of the territorial defense and military zone commands was achieved to clearly separate the command functions of the organisms intended for campaign operations from those that refer more precisely to the territory of the state and to the troops operating for the defense of the territory itself..
For the constitution of the infantry, rapid, alpine and motorized divisions, see military division, App.
The chemical regiment is made up of 15 chemical teams, one for each army corps command.
The garrison troops in the Italian Aegean Islands consist of 2 infantry regiments, 1 mixed artillery group and the automotive section.
For the colonial armed forces located in overseas territories, see Italian East Africa: Forze armate, App.; libya: Armed Forces, App.
Navy (p. 779). – New units: Battleships: Vittorio Veneto and Littorio (launched in 1937), 35,000 tons. and 30 knots, armed with 9/381, 12/152, 12/90 anti-aircraft, aircraft catapult. The battleships Cavour and Cesare have been modernized, their speed increased to 27 knots and the armament replaced with 10 / 320,12 / 12c, 8/100 anti-aircraft. The battleships Doria and Duilio are being modernized and will have similar characteristics to the previous ones.
Light cruisers: The cruisers Garibaldi and Duca degli Abruzzi, from 7800 tons have been completed. and 35 knots, armed with 10 / 152.8 / 100 anti-aircraft, aircraft catapult.
Destroyer: 12 Soldier type (Aviere, Black Shirt, Gunner, Bridge, Ascaro, Cuirassier, Rifleman, Alpine, Grenadier, Bersagliere, Pontiere, Lancere): 1620 tons, 39 knots, 4/120, 6 launch tubes of 533; 4 Oriani type (Onani, Alfieri, Carducci, Gioberti) of 1486 tons. and 34 knots, 4/120, 6 tubes of 533.
Torpedo boats: 16 (Alcione, Airone, Arethusa, Ariel, Clio, Calipso, Calliope, Circe, Lira, Libra, Lupo, Lince, Pallas, Partenope, Pleiadi, Pollux) under construction, from 679 tons. and 34 knots, 3/100, 4 launch tubes of 450; 16 Sirio type (Spica, Aldebaran, Cigno, Canopo, Cassiopea, Castor, Sagittarius, Vega, Andromeda, Antares, Altair, Goshawk, Centaur, Climene, Perseus, Sirius), with characteristics equal to the previous ones.
Stock alerts: 4 Bear type (Orsa, Orione, Procione, Pegaso) of 855 tons. and 28 knots, armed with 2/100 and 4 hoses of 450.
Colonial ship: Eritrea: 2170 tons, 20 knots, 4/120.
Medium cruising submarines: 9 (Marcello, Nani, Mocenigo, Veniero, Provana, Barbarigo, Emo, Morosini, Dandolo) under construction, of 941 tons. and 17 knots, 8 launch tubes of 533, 2/100; 3 (Brin, Galvani, Guglielmotti) under construction, of 896 tons. and 17 knots, with 8 tubes of 533, 1/120. Small cruising submarines: 7 (Uarsheich, Uebi Scebeli, Scirè, Tembien, Durbo, Lafolè, Beilul) under construction, of 620 tons. and 14 knots, with 6 tubes of 533 and 1/100; 10 type Adua (Adua, Axum, Aradam, Alagi, Macallè, Neghelli, Gondar, Ascianghi, Dessiè, Dagabur) launched in 1935-36, from 620 tons. and 14 knots, with 6 pipes of 533.1 / 100; 2 (Argo, Velella) launched in 1935, of 687 tons. and 14 knots, 6 tubes of 533, 1/100; 10 type Pearl (Pearl, Gemma, Beryl, Jasper, Turquoise, Coral, Onyx, Iris, Amber, Malachite), from 620 tons. and 14 knots, with 6 launch tubes of 533 and 1/100. Minelayer submarines: 1 (Atropo) under construction, of 1109 tons. and 16 knots, with 1 / 100.2 anti-aircraft machine gunners, 6 torpedo launchers of 533; 2 (Foca, Zoea) launched in 1936, from 1109/1533 tons. and 16-8.7 knots, with 6 tubes of 533, 1/100.
The new shipbuilding program, approved on 7 January 1938, includes 2 ships of the line (Rome and Empire) of 35,000 tons, 12 explorers (Attilio Regolo, Scipione l’Africano, Caio Marzio, Cornelio Silla, Paolo Emilio, Pompeo Magno, Octavian Augustus, Claudius Drusus, Agrippa, Claudius Tiberius, Julius Germanicus, Ulpius Trajan) and 18 submarines (G. Marconi, Leonardo da Vinci, Adm. Saint – Bon, Adm. Cagni, Adm. Millo, Adm. Caracciolo, Cons. Gen. Liuzzi, Alpino Bagnolini, Reginaldo Giuliani, Captain Tarantini, Michele Bianchi, Luigi Torelli, Alessandro Malaspina, Major Baracca, Com. Cappellini, Com. Faà di Bruno, type 2 Brin). These constructions must have been completed in 1940-41; for that period the Italian military fleet will consist of 8 ships of the line, 7 cruisers of 10,000 tons, 12 cruisers between 5000 and 8000 tons, 12 large ocean explorers, 12 explorers of 2000 tons, 20 large destroyers, 24 minor destroyers, 32 deep-sea torpedo boats and over 100 submarines.
Military aviation (p. 781). – The development of metropolitan and colonial aeronautics has led to a new adjustment of the aeronautical system, established by decree-law, n. 220, of February 22, 1937. The Royal Air Force on the basis of this decree is made up of: 1 office of the General Staff; 4 territorial air zone commands; 1 Air Force Command of Sicily; 1 air force command of Sardinia; 1 Aegean Air Force Command; the Air Force Command of Libya; 1 Higher Air Force Command for Italian East Africa.
The air force currently consists of the following elements: Air Force weapon; Corps of the Aeronautical Engineers; aeronautical commissariat corps; aeronautical health corps; military schools of the R. Aeronautica. Constituted according to the law of 1931 by 42 groups of squadrons, the air army is made up of 93 groups of squadrons, gathered in a variable number of higher-order air units.
The colonial garrison air forces are made up of air forces located in the territories of the colonies and destined exclusively to carry out garrison duties. In the colonial territories there are also units of the air force.
In addition to the schools mentioned (p. 782), the following were established: the School for the application of the aeronautical weapon (Florence), intended for the completion of the military culture of the officers recruited by the Royal Aeronautical Academy of Caserta; the Parachute School; the Flight School without visibility.