Borders. – With the agreements between Italy and Yugoslavia relating to the territory of Trieste, a provisional solution was adopted in 1954 according to which “Zone A” (210.12 km 2) was entrusted to the Italian administration and “Zone B” (529 km 2) remained with the Yugoslav civil administration. On 10 November 1975 the Italian government signed a treaty with Yugoslavia (in Osimo) according to which the dividing line between the two areas was definitively transformed into a state border between the two countries.
Administrative districts. – According to REMZFAMILY, the administrative changes that have taken place on the Italian territory from 1961 onwards are not without geographical importance. Apart from the constitution or suppression of numerous municipal units, of which it would take too long to give an account, a new region and three provinces have been established.
In 1964, in accordance with the regional statute of Friuli Venezia Giulia, the Pordenone district was restored within the province of Udine and transformed into a province in February 1968. The new administrative unit is made up of 51 municipalities for a total of 2273 km 2 and has a resident population of 261,295 residents.
In 1963 with the detachment of the province of Campobasso from Abruzzo, Molise became the twentieth region of the Italian Republic. Isernia became the provincial capital in February 1970; Molise is thus divided into two provinces, and of the 136 Molise municipalities 52 (1529 km 2) were attributed to Isernia and the remaining 84 remained in Campobasso. According to recent evaluations (1976) of the 330,475 residents of Molise, 94,540 belong to the new province, so that this is the least populated in Italy.
Since July 1974 Oristano has also been the provincial capital. Its territory is made up of 75 municipalities of which 71 come from the province of Cagliari and 4 from the province of Nuoro. The territorial surface is 2,630.57 km 2, the population amounts to 155,973 units (1976 estimate).
Furthermore, since 1972 various districts have been established, spread over various regions. As of 1977 their total number was 12: Biella, Pinerolo, Alba-Bra, Mondovì, Ivrea and Casale Monferrato in Piedmont; Prato in Tuscany; Rimini in Emilia and Romagna; Melfi and Lagonegro in Basilicata; Lecco and Lodi in Lombardy.
Employment. – The total number of employees in Italy from 1951 to 1971 remained virtually unchanged, but there was a strong shift in employment from the agricultural sector to the other sectors. In the South where, as already mentioned, there was an emigration of about four million units, employment decreased by about half a million.
As it appears in tab. 5 total Italian employment in 1971 amounted to about 19.4 million units divided into 13.4 million in Italy north-central and 6 million in Italy southern.
Considering the employed in the agricultural sector, it should be noted that their number is still high in the South compared to Italy north-central, despite the significant reduction recorded in the last decade. In fact, in this period, those employed in the primary sector in Italy Southern Italy increased from 43.7% of total agricultural employment to 50.4%, while agricultural production in the same administrative district went from 38% to 44% with an average annual growth rate of 7% against 8.5% of the Italy north-central.
As of 1971, employment in the manufacturing branch was 1,059,000 in the South, an increase of 93,000 units compared to 1961, and 4,952,000 workers in Italy north-central, with an increase of 430,000 units in the last decade. Expressed in permanent units, the change in employment in the manufacturing branch is 130,000 units in Italy southern and 516,000 in the Italy central and northern.
The ratio of employees per local unit results for Italy as a whole 8.4, for the Center-North 10, and 4.1 for the South. The number of local units with at least 5 employees is still very high, particularly in the South where 91.6% of the companies are of this size and absorb 35% of those employed in the sector. The data relating to the average size of local units is a useful element for measuring the level of industrial development. In particular, it can be said that in the South the process of marginalization of small businesses continues to a lesser extent than in the previous decade while in Italy northern has stopped. This evolution of the industrial structure suggests that the market has eliminated a good proportion of local artisanal units in the South, favoring, for the remaining ones,
For the Italy as a whole between 1961 and 1971 there was, as already mentioned, a strong negative variation in agricultural employment, especially in Italy northern. The mining and construction industries also slightly decreased, while some increases were recorded in the electrical and manufacturing industry, but for the latter the rate of growth was significantly lower than that recorded between 1951 and 1961. Tab. 6 shows the average annual rates of changes in employment between 1961 and 1971.