Kazakhstan Government Structure

By | June 10, 2021

Kazakhstan is a young nation-state whose political development is largely determined by its increasingly autocratic ruling president. Democracy only exists on paper, freedom of expression is restricted, but Kazakhstan is not a police state and, above all, is stable internally and externally.

Independence Day: December 16, 1991

Head of state: Kasym-Dschomart Tokayev

Head of government: Askar Mamin

Political system: Presidential Republic

Democracy Status Index (BTI): 100 (out of 137), 2020

Corruption Index (CPI): 113 (out of 180), 2019


According to commit4fitness, the independent Kazakhstan had its first – parliamentary – constitution in 1993. As early as 1995 it was replaced by a new constitution based on the French one which established a strong president. Due to several constitutional amendments, its competencies were expanded at the expense of the government and parliament (limited in a few points for the first time in early 2017). The President determines the guidelines of politics and has extensive rights in filling important offices. He has the power to propose prime ministers and key ministers, and appoints and dismisses the government, as well as the Akime (governors) of the country’s territories. The president has the right to dissolve parliament and is the commander in chief of the army. In principle, there is a limit to two terms of office. However, special regulations apply to the first president of independent Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev. The president is elected by the people.

The government is accountable to the President and accountable to Parliament. Their structure is constantly being changed by the reallocation and redistribution of tasks between the departments.

The Parliament since 1995 of two chambers: the Senate and the Madschilis. The Senate has 47 seats. 15 senators are appointed directly by the president, 32 elected by the regional representative bodies for six years. The Majilis, the lower house of parliament, has 107 seats. 98 MPs are elected every five years according to party lists by the population, nine seats from the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, a special representation of the many nationalities of the country, occupied. According to the constitution, both chambers of parliament have some common competences (e.g. confirmation of constitutional amendments, adoption of the budget), many others are separate. In fact, both follow the president’s wishes.

The highest body of the judiciary, the Supreme Court, the highest organ of state security, the National Security Council, said in 2018 of his life the first president since May protrudes.

According to the letter of the constitution, the president has extensive powers and de facto determines the country’s politics. There is no division of powers.

Administrative structure

Kazakhstan inherited its regional administrative structure from the Soviet Union. After several administrative reforms and amalgamations, the country now has 14 areas and three cities of republic-wide importance (Nur-Sultan, Almaty, Schimkent). Given the size of the country, the natural and socio-economic conditions in the individual areas differ greatly. In terms of area, the Karaganda area is the largest (428,000 km²), the highest population density is in the Turkestan area (2,788,000 residents, = 19.5 / km²). An Akim (governor) appointed by the president presides over the areas. The regional parliaments are elected by the population.

State symbols

The turquoise of the flag and coat of arms of the Republic of Kazakhstan is supposed to symbolize the sky. The flag shows a golden sun with rays in the middle and a flying eagle below.

The coat of arms of Kazakhstan depicts the Shangyrak, the top round part of the roof of a yurt, with mystical, stylized animals on both sides.

The national anthem of 2006 was composed by Shamshi Kaldajakow based on a famous song, the text of Schumeken Naschimedenow be revised by the First President Nazarbayev personally to the official version has to be.

Text in German translation:

In the sky the golden sun,

in the steppe the golden grain.

One legend of bravery – this is my country.

Your fame began in ancient times,

and my Kazakh people are proud and strong.

Oh my people! Oh my country

I am your flower, grew out of you,

I am the song on your lips,

you are my home! – My Kazakhstan!

Infinite space, and the way into the future paved,

independence and a united people.

We meet the new times,

our happy country, our people like an eternal friend.

Oh my people! Oh my country

I am your flower, grew out of you,

I am the song on your lips,

you are my home! – My Kazakhstan!

Kazakhstan Flag