Almaty, until 1921 Werny, until 1993 Alma-Ata, independent city in Kazakhstan, 700–900 m above sea level, on the northern slope of the Transili-Alatau, a foothill of the northern Tian Shan; (2019) 1.9 million residents, of which around a third are Russians.
With several mountain rivers and streams flowing through it, Almaty is the cultural and economic center of Kazakhstan. The city has several universities and colleges, Kazakh Academy of Sciences, national library, meteorological and seismic station, several theaters, numerous museums; Close to the high mountain ice stadium (1,680 m above sea level). The most important branches of industry are mechanical engineering, metallurgy, building materials, food and beverage industries, and printing. Almaty is a trade and service center with many banks and an important trade fair location. Fruit, vegetables and flowers are grown in the area. Almaty is an important transport hub: station on the Turkestan-Siberian Railway, subway (since 2011; first subway in Kazakhstan), international airport.2 large reservoir of the Chilik river, from which the 170 km long Almaty irrigation canal branches off.
Cityscape: Almaty has a checkered street grid. The most important sacred buildings are the Ascension Cathedral (wooden structure; 1904-07), Nicholas Cathedral (1904-08), central mosque (opened in 1997). The tallest structure is the 371.5 m high television tower (1975-83). There has been extensive new construction activity (hotels, high-rise commercial buildings) since the 1990s.
History: According to politicsezine, Almaty was founded in 1854 as a Russian border fortress on the site of a Kazakh settlement, the history of which goes back far into the past (prehistoric caravan station, from the 13th to the 15th century a Mongolian trading base on the northern Silk Road, from the 17th to the 19th century Influx of Siberian settlers and Cossacks, garrison town). The city was almost completely destroyed by earthquakes twice in 1887 and 1911. From 1929 Almaty was the capital of Kazakhstan and experienced intense industrialization and an increase in population. Under Stalin , Almaty often served as a place of exile (e.g. L. Trotsky’s ). In the 1960s, the city was expanded as a winter sports center. As the capital, Almaty was replaced by Astana (renamed Nursultan in March 2019) on December 10, 1997.
Schymkent, Tschimkent, Čimkent [t ʃ -], Schemken, independent city in the south of Kazakhstan, 512 m above sea level, in the western foreland of the Tian Shan, which slopes gently towards the Syrdarja, (2019) 1 million residents.
The city has a university, technical university, medical academy, museums, theaters. Schymkent is an important industrial center with mechanical engineering, chemical industry (phosphate fertilizer), petroleum processing, textile (cotton), building materials and food industry (including sunflower oil), brewery, processing of karakul skin; Transport hub on the Turkestan-Siberian Railway, airport.
Shymkent, known since the 12th century, was an important caravan center; In 1864 it came to Russia.
Karaghandy , Karaghandy, Russian Karaganda, capital of the Karagandy region in Kazakhstan, on the Irtysh-Karaghandy Canal, (2019) 497 800 residents.
The city has a university (founded in 1972), a technical university, a medical university, and a zoological garden. Qaraghandy is the center of the Qaraghandy hard coal basin (primarily coking coal is mined, partly in open-cast mining) with heavy engineering, building materials, textile and food industries; Airport.
History: In 1934, Qaraghandy was founded to develop the coal deposits, the mining work was mainly carried out by prisoners of war, later by prisoners of war, there was an extensive camp system in the area. After 1942, many of the deported Volga Germans were resettled here. Around 1970 there were around 146,000 Germans living in Qaraghandy. The population reached 700,000 in the 1980s, after which the number fell to 436,900 residents (1999) due to the emigration caused by industrial decline, after which it rose again slightly.