According to abbreviationfinder, Luxembourg, also known as Luxembourg City, is the capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the district and the canton of the same names. It is located at the confluence of the Alzette and Pétrusse rivers in the south of the country and contains the historic Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the High Middle Ages, and on the basis of which the city developed. Luxembourg is one of the richest cities in Europe, having become an important financial and administrative center. Luxembourg, despite its size, is a city with an important presence in Central European culture.
Luxembourg officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. It is a small country in northwestern Europe that is part of the European Union. Located on the south-western slope of the Ardennes massif, it is made up of two natural regions. The northern part is a region of valleys and forests, sparsely populated and whose maximum altitude does not exceed 500 meters where potatoes and cereals are grown. To the south (Gutland) is concentrated most of the population and the main industries of the country, which has problems of water and air pollution in urban areas. The economic structure of Luxembourg is mainly based on the banking and insurance sector, as well as the steel industry. The agriculture, the livestock and viticulture are important too. See population of Luxembourg.
The city is located in the south of the Grand Duchy (called Gutland or Bon Pays). The national border is in the direction of France and Germany about 20 minutes, in the direction of Belgium about 15 minutes. It is not uncommon for Luxembourg’s central location to be “in the heart of Europe”: Cologne is 159 kilometers, Strasbourg 164 kilometers, Brussels 186 kilometers, Frankfurt am Main 191 kilometers, Paris 287 kilometers.
In Luxembourg there is a temperate continental climate, influenced by the Atlantic winds, characterized by mild winters and pleasant summers. The air is generally soft and humid; The amount of precipitation is 782.2 mm; Average temperatures 9 ° C, January 0.8 ° C in January, 17.5 ° C in July.
In Roman times, the territory of the present city of Luxembourg is crossed by two roads that cross consulars in the place of the fish market dominated by a fortified tower. A small castle located there is converted in 963 as the result of an act of exchange with the Abbey of Saint Maximinus of Trier, the property of Count Siegfried, a close relative of the Emperors of Germany and kings of France. In the “Bock”, not far from the castle called “Lucilinburhuc” Siegfried built his castle, now it is considered the cradle of the city, the country and the nation. In 965, a first enclosure wall protects it against enemy troops.
Since 1050, the expansion of the population is essential and a second chamber, parallel to the first, is built up to the current street of the ditch. In 1244, Countess Ermesinde granted the city her letter of emancipation. New fortification work on the upper part began in 1320, during the reign of John the Blind, to be completed in 1398. The fortification of the lower city (Grund) was carried out between 1387 and 1395. In 1354, it became Luxembourg Duchy.
After taking the fortress in 1443 by the Burgundian troops of Philip the Good, the city of Luxembourg, one of the strongest fortresses on the continent, finally enters the European geostrategic game between the interests of all the powers of the time. By marriage, she returned in 1447, with all Burgundian possessions, to the Habsburgs of Austria. In 1542, the French troops of Francisco I seize the fortress, which is reconquered in 1554 by the imperial troops. After the siege imposed by Louis XIV in 1683/84, the French troops reconquered, under the command of Vauban, the fortress. Between 1684 and 1688, Vauban erected large fortifications, employing more than 3,000 workers. After the Peace of Rijswijk, the Spanish administration takes over in 1698, replaced again by France in 1701.
The fortress of Luxembourg now constitutes one of the main strategic pillars of the Austrian Netherlands against a possible French extension. For this reason, the fortifications erected by Marshal de Vauban were strengthened and enlarged. The outer forts are arranged and the network of casemates, almost 25 km long, is carved out of the rock of the fortress.
In 1795, the fortress then rated by Carnot the largest plaza in the world, except for Gibraltar, must be handed over to the armies of the French Republic, after a blockade and siege of eleven months. Under the name of “Forest Department”, the Duchy of Luxembourg was incorporated into the Republic and later into the French Empire Sovereignty, neutrality, independence
Three key dates mark the course of history in the 19th century:
In 1815, at the Congress of Vienna, the sovereignty of the country was proclaimed and Luxembourg was promoted to the Grand Duchy. The King of the Netherlands becomes a personal Grand Duke of Luxembourg. At the same time, the city becomes a federal fortress and houses a Prussian garrison.
After the Belgian revolution in 1839, the Walloon part of the Grand Duchy separated to become the Belgian province of Luxembourg. The Grand Duchy, in its present form, achieves independence.
At the London conference in 1867, Luxembourg was declared neutral, the Prussian garrison departed, and the fortress was dismantled. The fortifications of Luxembourg then stretched over 180 hectares, while the size of the city was 120 hectares. The total length of the underground fortifications was 23 km, 10 of which are still accessible today.
The dismantling of the fortress continued for 16 years and cost more than 1.5 million gold francs. The disappearance of the fortifications of the upper city, including those in what are now the Royal Boulevard and the Boulevard Prince Henri, such as those in the current area of the station, will allow the birth of new neighborhoods and the development of parks and walks.
A decade earlier, the railway had already made a first breach in the fortified area. Whereas, at the request of the military authorities, the central station had been established outside the city. The lines that led him through the territory of the city, within reach of the garrison’s cannons. The roads crossed the ravines thanks to the viaducts that, today, give the city of Luxembourg a special stamp.
City of contrasts
Nowhere else are contemporary buildings so subtly harmonized with the ruins of ancient castles. For many years, the city of Luxembourg has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Luxembourg is a modern city with deep roots.
The capital is very multicultural: among the 93,865 residents (2010) 32,649 Luxembourg (34.78 percent) and 61,216 people with foreign passes (65.22 percent). Luxembourg is therefore the most multicultural capital in Europe (compared to Berlin: 13.4% of foreigners, Paris: 14.5%). Consequently, many languages are found here, especially German, French, Luxembourgish, Walloon and English. French, however, is the most widely spoken language. If you are looking for one of the cafes or restaurants in the city, you will be confronted with this language.