According to abbreviationfinder, Madrid is the capital of Spain and of the Community of Madrid, which is a single province. Also known as La Villa y Corte, it is the largest and most populated city in the country, officially reaching 3,213,271 residents within its municipality, while the unofficial figure of the register as of January 1, 2009 is 3,273,006 according to the city council and 6,043,031 in its metropolitan area, making it the third most populous city in the European Union – behind Berlin and London – and the third metropolitan area, behind those of Paris and London.
As the capital of the State, Madrid houses the headquarters of the Government, General Courts, Ministries, Institutions and Associated Organizations, as well as the official residence of the Kings of Spain. On an economic level, Madrid is the fourth largest city in Europe, after London, Paris and Moscow. It is the headquarters of numerous national companies and several of the largest corporations in the world. At the international level, it houses the world headquarters of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the headquarters of the Ibero-American General Secretariat (SEGIB), and the headquarters of the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture (OEI).
The population of Madrid has been experiencing a significant increase since it became the capital. This increase is especially significant during the period from 1940 to 1970, due to the large amount of internal immigration. This rapid growth and the lack of urban planning led to the organization of slums and residential areas, mainly in the southern districts, where public services would not arrive until many years later.
Starting in the 1970s, this increase slowed down in favor of municipalities in the metropolitan area and Madrid even began to lose population. Since 1995, population growth has been positive again, mainly due to foreign immigration. According to data available, to 1 of January of 2007 the population of Madrid amounted to 3,132,463 residents, compared with 2,938,723 in the census of 2001. See population of Spain.
The name of the residents of Madrid is “Madrileño” or “Matritense”. However, historically, the residents of Madrid have also been nicknamed “cats” because, according to legend, the conquest of the city by the troops of Alfonso VI at the end of the 11th century was carried out through the assault of the wall over which the Castilian troops climbed. Other legends indicate instead that this nickname of “cats” was given to the citizens of Madrid in the Middle Ages for their great ability to climb walls and cliffs with bare hands.
The city of Madrid is located in the central area of the Iberian Peninsula, a few kilometers north of Cerro de los Ángeles, its geographic center. The coordinates of the city are 40 ° 26′N 3 ° 41′W / 40.433, -3.683 and its average height above sea level is 667 m, making it one of the highest capitals in Europe.
The geographical and climatic context of Madrid is that of the South Sub-plateau, within the Central Plateau. The city is located a few kilometers from the Sierra de Guadarrama and is hydrographically located in the Tagus basin.
Madrid’s climate is a continental Mediterranean climate and is highly influenced by urban conditions. The average temperature is 12 ° C.
Winters are cold, with temperatures below 4-5 ° C, frequent frosts and occasional snowfall. Summers are hot with averages around 24 ° C in July and August and with highs that sometimes exceed 35 ° C.
Although there are many references to Madrid in medieval literature, and there are even famous people from Madrid in it, such as Ruy González de Clavijo, it is from the Golden Age literature that references to Madrid are very abundant, either because it is the scene of literary works or appear in their titles (El Acero de Madrid or Las Ferias de Madrid, by Lope de Vega) or by referring specifically to the town, its customs and residents, among which were Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega (himself a native of Madrid), Quevedo, Góngora (his tenant and mortal enemy, who had the pleasure of evicting him).
The streets between Atocha and Carrera de San Jerónimo concentrate most of the places of life and burial of these geniuses, including the place where Don Quixote was printed, and are known as Barrio de las Letras or Barrio de Las Musas (not confuse with the homonym located in San Blas). Two comedy corrals (the Corral del Príncipe, a precedent of the Spanish Theater, and the Caños del Peral, a precedent of the Madrid Opera House) shared the popular audience, rivaling in the premiere of Tirso de Molina or Calderón de la Barca. (both from Madrid).
The eighteenth century meant a decline in the quality of literature, including the stage, although the Madrid public was delighted with Ramón de la Cruz’s sainetes, with a traditional atmosphere (one of which coined the term Manolo), or the most intellectual productions of the Moratín (father and son)
Madrid has important museums, among which the art galleries stand out, which constitute one of the main tourist attractions of the city. The so-called Art Triangle concentrates next to each other, three reference centers: the Prado Museum, the Thyssen-Bornemisza, and the Reina Sofía Museum.
- Complutense University of Madrid
- European University of Madrid
- Pontifical University «Comillas»
- Ecclesiastical University “San Dámaso” , since 2011