State structure and political system of Uruguay
Uruguay is a constitutional republic. On November 27, 1966, the Constitution was adopted, which entered into force in February 1967, was repealed on June 27, 1973. The new Constitution did not pass by referendum on November 30, 1980, two constitutional reforms were adopted by plebiscite on November 26, 1989 and January 7, 1997. Administratively divided into 19 departments: Artigas, Duracio, Canelones, Colonia, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rivera, Rio Negro, Rocha, Salto, San José, Cero Largo, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres, Flores, Florida. The largest cities: Montevideo, Canelones, Colonia del Sacramento, Salto.
The highest legislative body is the General Assembly, which consists of two chambers: the Senate (30 senators) and the House of Representatives (99 deputies), elected by the population for 5 years. Suffrage is universal and compulsory, granted to all citizens who have reached the age of 18. The highest body of executive power is the Council of Ministers, appointed by the President and approved by the Parliament. The head of state is the president, elected by the people by direct universal suffrage. The president is also the head of government. The vice-president is also the head of government. The electoral system is based on the Spanish civil law system. Since March 2000, President – Jorge Batlle Ibanez, Vice President – Luis Hierro.
One of the outstanding presidents of Uruguay was Jorge Batlle, twice elected to this post (1903–07, 1911–15), a representative of the Colorado party, who carried out socio-economic and political reforms that changed the country. His name is associated with the Batlism movement, which recognizes the leading role of the state and the public sector in the economic life of the country, the predominant development of industry. Batlism has become a way of existence and life of the Uruguayans, and it is associated with modern Uruguay. Louis Batlier – President (1947-51), Colorado Party, nephew of H. Batlier, supporter of Batlisma, advocated the development of an import-substitution-oriented industry. HM. Sanguinetti, Colorado Party, was elected president twice (1985-89, 1995-99), batlist. During the first term, the main task of his reign was to restore peace in Uruguayan society after 12 years of military rule. In the 2nd period, he revived the politics of battleism. At the same time, it reduced the regulatory role of the state. Jorge Batlle Ibanez – President (2000-04), Colorado Party, son and great-nephew of the presidents of Uruguay, continues the line on the development of battleism.
leading political parties. The Colorado Party, or Batlista Party (after the name of the founder of the most important faction, H. Batlier), was founded in 1836. It relies on the bourgeois strata, civil servants, and the military. The National Party, or “Blanco”, was founded in the 1830s. It unites large landowners, the commercial, financial and industrial bourgeoisie associated with foreign capital. The Christian Democratic Party (CDP) was founded in the beginning. 20th century under the name “Civil Union”, since 1962 – CDA. Expresses the interests of the petty national bourgeoisie. The Socialist Party of Uruguay (SPU) took organizational shape in 1911. In the 1960s. in the policy of the SPU there was a shift to the left, the party left the Socialist International. The Communist Party (CPU) was founded in 1920 on the basis of the left majority of the SPU. In 1973-84 it operated underground, legalized in 1985.
The largest trade union association, the Intertrade-Union Plenum of Working People—National Working People’s Convention (IPT—CNT), officially took shape in 1966. In 1973–84, the IPT—CNT was banned and operated underground. Unites 200 trade unions, 40 workers’ federations – 230 thousand members (90% of organized workers).
The highest court is the Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and elected for 10 years by the General Assembly).
The leading business organization is the Export and Investment Promotion Organization.
In domestic politics, the strategic task put forward by H. Batlier is the idea of national reconciliation, the final settlement of the problems of the victims of the period of military dictatorship (1973–85). The movement, formed by family members of the victims of the dictatorship, demands that every case of disappearance and death be officially investigated and those responsible punished. The issue of the victims of the military dictatorship for a long time continued to be the subject of polarization of Uruguayan society, acquired a nationwide character and began to be used by the left as a lever of pressure on the authorities. Taking into account this circumstance, and also taking into account the success of the left opposition in the last national elections, H. Batlier, having come to power, set the strategic task of finally “closing” this issue as a priority of the presidential policy.
Science and culture of Uruguay
According to searchforpublicschools, Uruguay has the highest educational attainment and the largest relative enrollment of any other country in Latin America. In 2001, there were 345.6 thousand students in elementary school, 188.055 thousand in secondary school, 59.964 thousand in technical schools, and 60.926 thousand in universities. Compulsory 9-year education for children from the age of 6 has been introduced since 1975. There are 14 universities: the University of the Republic, the Catholic University of Uruguay. Damaso Antonio Larranaga, University of Montevideo and others. Published ca. 300 daily newspapers (the largest circulation does not exceed 35,000 copies).
Science is financed by the state (90%) and foreign funds. Among the state scientific institutions are the institutes of endocrinology and oncology, the oceanographic service, and others. Scientific work is also being carried out at universities. The world enlightened public is familiar with the works of famous cultural figures such as writers Juan Carlos Onetti, Mario Benedetti, Miguel Angel Campodonico, painters Pedro Figari and J. Torres Garcia, sculptors A. Peni, J.L. Zorrilla de San Martino, José Belloni. The peak of the influence of the Uruguayans on the popular culture of the 20th century. was their participation in the development of the song and dance genre of tango, which originated in Buenos Aires. The author of one of the two most popular melodies of this trend in the world, Kumparsita, was in 1917 the Uruguayan Gerardo Matos Rodriguez.