Henan [x ʌ nan], Honan, province in central China, 167,000 km 2, (2010) 94.0 million residents; The capital and important railway junction is Zhengzhou.Flowed through by the Hwangho in the north, Henan is very fertile (extensive, mighty loess deposits) and one of the most densely populated provinces. Because of numerous natural disasters on Hwangho and Huai He, large regulatory constructions have been carried out since 1950 (Sanmen dam). Wheat, oil crops, maize, fruit, also tobacco and cotton are grown. In the mountains around Nanyang in the southwest, an agricultural area developed with rice and sesame cultivation as well as silkworm breeding; Silk manufacture (Honan silk). Among the mineral resources, coal (in the north near Anyang with steelworks), molybdenum and tungsten are important. Industrial centers are Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Kaifeng; dominating inter alia Tractor, fertilizer, textile and mechanical engineering industries.
Zhengzhou [d ʒ ε ŋ d ʒ ɔ ʊ ], capital of Henan Province, China, in the Great Plain near the Hwangho (Bridge), 8.63 million residents in the entire administrative area, 5.48 million of them in the city districts; University, colleges of medicine and agriculture, archaeological museum; developed as a railway junction into an important industrial center (mechanical engineering, especially textile engineering, textile, food industry, cable works); Airfield.
Finds of stamped earthen walls, ceramic ovens and richly decorated graves (especially bronze ritual vessels) that date from the 16th to the 14th centuries. Century BC To be dated.
Hebei, Hopei, Hopeh, 1421–1928 Chihli [t ʃ -], province in northern China, in the north of the Great Plain on the Gulf of Bo Hai, 202,700 km 2, (2010) 71.9 million residents (not including the cities with direct government Beijing and Tientsin); The capital is Shijiazhuang. In Chengde in the northeast of the province is the imperial summer palace built in the 18th century with various temples, including the Putuozongcheng Temple (Temple of the Putuo Doctrine) north of the Imperial Palace, the largest of the outer temple complexes. The facilities have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1994.
Bounded in the north and west by mountains (up to 2,000 m above sea level), Hebei is formed from fertile alluvial land. Most of Hebei is in the Hai He catchment area. After 1949, the risk of flooding was averted by afforestation of the mountainous region, the construction of water reservoirs and the installation of an irrigation and drainage system. Today the province is the largest cotton producer in China; wheat, maize, millet, soybeans, potatoes and oil fruits are also grown; in the mountainous countries also fruit growing. In terms of mineral resources, Hebei has coal, iron and copper ores, as well as natural gas, crude oil and limestone; sea salt extraction on the coast. The main economic centers are Beijing and Tientsin. The iron and steel industry as well as mechanical engineering and the chemical industry are of great importance;
Shanxi [ ʃ ançi ː ], Schansi, Shansi, province in northern China, in the west and southwest of central Hwangho, bounded in the north by the Great Wall of China, 157 100 km 2, (2010) 35.7 million residents (including small national minorities, especially Hui, Manchu, Koreans, Uighurs), capital is Taiyuan.The highlands of Shanxi (Shanxiplateau), mostly located over 1,000 m above sea level and covered by about 100 m thick layers of loess, only has the character of a plateau in the western part as a heavily ravaged plateau, otherwise it is through several mountain ranges (Wutai Shan, 3 058 m above sea level; Lüliang Shan, 2,831 m above sea level; Zhongtia Shan, 2,359 m above sea level; Taiyue Shan, 2,347 m above sea level; Heng Shan, 2,017 m above sea level) and basins (some only around 300 m above sea level) and is traversed by the Fen He in a partly basin-like widened valley from north to south. To the east are the western mountain ranges of the Taihang Shan (1,500–1,850 m above sea level). Low rainfall, cold winters, warm summers. Agriculture (especially in the Fen He valley, operated in the middle Shanxi Basin and in the Xin-Xian Basin) only yields secured yields with artificial irrigation of the fields, which are often laid out in terraces because of the risk of erosion; Grains (wheat, millet, maize), soybeans, cotton, hemp, sugar beet, tobacco and peanuts are grown; cattle, donkeys and mules are kept as draft animals. Shanxi is the leading Chinese province in coal mining (um Datong, Taiyuan, Xishan, Yangquan, Fenxi, Lishi, etc.); In addition, iron ores (Zentralalshanxi), titanium and vanadium ores (near Fenxi) as well as silver, zinc and copper ores are mined. In addition to iron ore smelting, the most important branches of industry are mechanical engineering, cotton processing, and the chemical and food industries; its main centers are Taiyuan and Datong. From 1992 modernization of the coal mining industry, which was technically totally out of date; Construction of coal power plants. The railroad, the main line of which runs through the valley of the Fen He, is of the greatest importance for transport. A 653 km long pure freight line (Daqing Line) leads from the coal area around Datong in the far north to the export port of Qinhuangdao on Bo Hai Bay (Yellow Sea).
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Taiyuan [ta yεn], Taiyüan, 1912–47 Yangqu [ja ŋ t ɕ y], Yangchü, capital of Shanxi Province, China, on Fen He, 4.20 million residents in the entire administrative area, of whom 3.47 million Residents in the boroughs; several universities and technical colleges, provincial museum; important industrial center with iron and steel works, heavy machinery and mining equipment construction, chemical industry, cement factories, cotton processing and electrical power generation; Airport.
The landmark of the city is the 13-story two-pagoda temple (Shuangta Si) from the Ming period. The temple complex of Jinci, founded in the 5th century, is 25 km southwest of Taiyuan. with a wooden hall (1023–31).
Taiyuan existed as Jinyang [d ʒ in-] under the Western Zhou dynasty (around 1050–771 BC). In the 6th century AD, under the Northern Qi, it was designated the second metropolis and developed as a Buddhist center. The city reached its greatest boom in the Tang period (618–907); Destroyed in 979 because of their resistance to the Song Dynasty. It became the capital of Shanxi during the Ming Dynasty. 1911 one of the first cities to rebel against Manchu rule. 1913-48 it was the seat of a military regime under the Chinese warlord Yan Xishan.
Datong, Tatung, city in northern Shanxi Province, China, population 1.36 million; Center of the largest Chinese coal mining area; Mining machine and locomotive construction, cement and chemical industry; Railway junction. – To the west of Datong are the Yungang cave temples(5th century), declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.