According to topschoolsintheusa, Argentina is a federal republic. The country has a Constitution of 1853. It has been repeatedly amended. The latter were introduced in 1994. Argentina includes 23 provinces and the federal capital district of the provinces: Buenos Aires, Jujuy, Catamarca, Cordoba, Corrientes, La Plata, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Tierra del Fuego, Rio Negro, Salta, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, San Juan, Tucuman, Formosa, Chaco, Chu-but, Entre Rios. Federal Capital Region: Buenos Aires. The largest city and capital of the country is Buenos Aires. Other largest cities: Rosario, Cordoba.
The system of state power is based on the principles of representative democracy, the most important of which are the election of all government bodies and the separation of powers. The highest legislative body is the National Congress, which consists of two chambers: the Senate (72 senators) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 deputies). Congress annually approves the national budget, establishes direct and indirect taxes, establishes a federal bank and regulates its work, adopts customs legislation, establishes rules for exports and imports. Among the powers of Congress is the adoption of codes – civil, criminal, labor and public safety. Exclusively within the competence of the Congress are the issues of determining the boundaries of the state and provinces and their security. Congress ratifies or rejects treaties concluded with other states, as well as international organizations. The competence of the highest legislative body is to allow the entry of foreign troops into the territory of Argentina and send the national Armed Forces outside the country. By order of Congress, an announcement is made to start a war or to make peace. Congress establishes courts subordinate to the Supreme Court, declares a general amnesty, makes a final decision on the resignation of the president or vice president, and announces new elections. Congress also controls the activities of the administration. A number of powers belong to the exclusive competence of one of the chambers of the National Congress. Thus, only the Chamber of Deputies has the right to legislative initiative in the field of taxation and conscription into the army. Only she has the right to bring charges against the highest officials of the state (president, vice president, prime minister, ministers, members of the Supreme Court) for failure (or poor performance) of their duties or for any crimes. The final decision on the issue of charges brought by the Chamber of Deputies against the highest officials of the state is made by the Senate. However, the official conviction and punishment of the accused is within the competence of the ordinary court.
Only the Senate has the power to authorize the president to impose a state of siege that temporarily removes constitutional guarantees for basic civil liberties.
Executive power is exercised by the president and the government. The composition of the government includes: the chairman of the government (prime minister); Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Worship; internal affairs; defense; economy and production; federal planning, public investment and services; justice, security and human rights; labour, employment and social security; education, science and technology; health care; social development. The members of the government are also the secretary general of the office of the president, the head of the Central Bank, the prosecutor general, the head of the SIDE intelligence service (intelligence and counterintelligence).
The head of state is the president. He carries out the general political leadership of the country and bears full responsibility for this. The president’s competence, along with the implementation of general operational political leadership, includes participation in the development of laws, as well as instructions and orders necessary for their specific implementation. In exceptional cases, if the normal exercise of their functions by the legislature is not possible, the president may issue decrees. At the same time, the head of state is not entitled to make any changes to the electoral, party, tax and criminal legislation.
The President opens the sessions of the National Congress, provides the legislators with a report on the state of the country. He may prolong the sessions of Congress or convene them if circumstances so require. The head of state ensures the distribution of income in accordance with the adopted budget. The President appoints (with the consent of the Senate) members of the Supreme Court and other federal courts, as well as ministers and other officials. The head of state controls the work of the administrative apparatus. During the recess of Congress, the president has the right to declare a state of siege. The competence of the head of state is the conclusion and signing of international treaties. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. With the permission of Congress, he has the right to declare war.
The current president of Argentina is Nestor Kirchner. Vice President – Daniel Scioli. The Prime Minister is Alberto Fernandez. President of the Chamber of Deputies – Eduardo Oscar Camagno. The President of the Senate is Daniel Scioli (Vice President of Argentina).
The Chamber of Deputies is elected by direct, universal, secret ballot under the system of proportional representation for a term of 4 years. Its composition is updated by 50% every 2 years. Since 2001, the Senate has been elected by direct majority system. The Senate is elected by 3 representatives from each of the 23 provinces and from the federal capital district. The term of office of the Senate is 6 years. Every two years the Senate is renewed by 1/3.