Stockholm, capital and residential city of Sweden, located at the outflow of Lake Mälaren into the Baltic Sea, on the skerries, islands and peninsulas and the adjacent mainland, (2017) 1.56 million residents, as a large municipality 187 km 2, 962 154 residents.
Stockholm is the Evangelical Lutheran and Catholic bishopric and seat of the Nobel Foundation. The city has a total of 16 universities and colleges, including Stockholm University (emerged in 1960 from the Stockholm University, founded in 1877), technical college, business school, two art colleges, music college, college of theater, film, radio and television, sports college, in the The neighboring town of Solna has a medical college (Karolinska Institutet). The three academies of science are the Swedish Academy, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the Royal Swedish Academy of Learning, History and Antiquities. There are also numerous research institutes, the Royal Library, the East Asian Library and archives.
As the cultural center of Sweden, according to ehealthfacts, Stockholm has important museums, including: the National Museum (with the most important collection of paintings in the country), the Modern Museum and Architecture Museum, the Nordic Museum, the History Museum (including picture stones, art from the Migration and Viking Age), the Ethnographic Museum, the Mediterranean Museum (among others important Cyprus collection), East Asian Museum, Thiel Gallery (in an Art Nouveau villa, 1905, by F. Boberg; mainly Swedish painting from the 19th to 20th centuries), Skansen open-air museum, Vasa Museum (with the flagship of the Swedish fleet, which sank in 1628, the »Wasa«). The approx. 30 km 2, founded in 1994 large city national park Ekopark includes forests, meadows and biotopes as well as museums, cultural monuments and sports facilities (e.g. the Olympic Stadium).
Economy: The importance of Stockholm as an industrial city has declined sharply in terms of the city as a place of production. However, it is still the headquarters of all major Swedish companies. Stockholm’s share in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industry as well as in the electrical and electronics industry (mainly located in the northwestern suburb of Kista) and in the printing and publishing industry is disproportionately high. Stockholm is the seat of several nationwide radio and television companies. The economic life of Stockholm is characterized by the great dominance of the service sector (finance, tourism, research, etc.).
Transport: The port of Stockholm, which is kept open in winter by icebreakers, can be reached by seagoing vessels with a draft of up to 6.5 m. It only played a modest role in the handling of goods, but is important as a ferry port (regular connections to the opposite coasts of the Baltic Sea). Stockholm is Sweden’s most important road and rail hub; the suburban railways are run underground in the city center (tunnel bana). Arlanda International Airport (2017: 26.6 million passengers) is north of Stockholm; Bromma Airport on the north-western outskirts is mainly used for domestic traffic (2.5 million passengers).
According to tradition, Stockholm, first documented in documents, goes back to Birger Jarl; Thanks to its favorable location between the Baltic Sea and Lake Mälaren, it developed into an important trading center, which was heavily influenced by the Hanseatic League and German immigrants until the end of the 14th century. In 1520 the Danish king Christian II conquered the city and tried to break the Swedish resistance against the Kalmar Union with a mass execution (Stockholm carnage November 8/9, 1520). In 1523 Gustav I. Wasa moved in Stockholm. With the relocation of the central authorities to Stockholm, the city became the capital in 1634. As a result, Stockholm experienced a great heyday; the population increased sharply (1630: 9,000 residents, 1676: 43,000 residents), and the city expanded far beyond the old town onto the mainland. In the 19th century the population rose from around 75,000 to 300,000. In 1912, Stockholm hosted the Summer Olympics.
Two peace treaties were agreed in Stockholm to end the Great Northern War:
In the November 1719 Treaty of Stockholm, Sweden ceded Bremen and Verden to Hanover, which paid Sweden 1 million thalers in return. With the Treaty of Stockholm signed on February 1, 1720, Prussia received Western Pomerania between the Oder and Peene, including the mouth of the Oder with Stettin and the islands of Usedom and Wollin from Sweden, but had to pay 2 million Reichstaler to it.
World Heritage Sites in Sweden
World Cultural Heritage (K) and World Natural Heritage (N)
- Drottningholm Palace (K; 1991)
- Viking settlements Birka and Hovgården (K; 1993)
- Engelberg ironworks (K; 1993)
- Rock carvings from Tanum (K; 1994)
- Skogskyrkogården cemetery near Stockholm (K; 1994)
- Historic city center of the Hanseatic city of Visby on the island of Gotland (K; 1995)
- Church town Gammelstad belonging to Luleå (K; 1996)
- Arctic cultural landscape Lapland (K / N; 1996)
- Karlskrona naval port (K; 1998)
- Archipelago – Kvarken Archipelago (N; 2000, extended 2006)
- Agricultural landscape of southern Öland (K; 2000)
- Historic industrial landscape “Großer Kupferberg” in Falun (K; 2001)
- Radio station Varberg (K; 2004)
- Measuring points of the Struve arch (K; 2005)
- Wooden farmhouses in the historic province of Hälsingland (K; 2012)