Tag Archives: China

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Provinces in Central China

Henan Henan [x ʌ nan], Honan, province in central China, 167,000 km 2, (2010) 94.0 million residents; The capital and important railway junction is Zhengzhou.Flowed through by the Hwangho in the north, Henan is very fertile (extensive, mighty loess deposits) and one of the most densely populated provinces. Because of numerous natural disasters on Hwangho… Read More »

Asia and the Maritime Conflicts Part I

Why are there so many acute conflicts over the demarcation of sea areas in Asia right now? In European eyes, some of them appear almost incomprehensible, and the drama around them evokes wonder. The warring parties seem to lack the ability to quell the conflicts – not to mention finding solutions to them. In addition,… Read More »

China Contemporary Literature (since 1949)

As of 1949, Chinese literature was divided into two obvious and two other less obvious camps. First there is the mainland and Taiwan, then there is Hong Kong and Macau and finally the overseas Chinese. An exodus took place in 1949, but those who went to Taiwan or Hong Kong often went on to America… Read More »

People’s Republic of China Part V

After fifteen years of negotiations, China (in connection with further opening up and liberalization of the economy) achieved its admission to the WTO as the 143rd member on November 10, 2001 (in force since December 11, 2001). With the first manned Chinese flight into space on 15./16. 10. 2003 (multiple orbits of the earth by… Read More »

People’s Republic of China Part IV

In 1992 China, a country located in Asia according to ethnicityology.com, formally acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and advocated a future nuclear test ban agreement, but refused to participate in a 1992 moratorium on nuclear weapons tests agreed by the US, Russia, Great Britain and France. However, after a Chinese nuclear test in June… Read More »

People’s Republic of China Part III

The downside of the economic upswing was the previously unknown inflation, corruption and the increase in serious crime, which the government fought with mass executions. The restrictive measures of the reform course included the ban on wall newspapers (1979), the elimination of the right to strike from the constitution (1982) and the administratively decreed “one-child… Read More »

People’s Republic of China Part II

In the following terrorist and purge campaign, carried out by Red Guards and spreading across the country, the party and state apparatus was largely smashed, but not the internal party anti-Maoist opposition in the provinces. When the resistance against the terror of the runaway Red Guards threatened to spark a civil war, the army intervened… Read More »

Chinese Theater Part II

20th century – development of spoken theater The spoken theater only became known at the beginning of the 20th century. One impulse came from the movement of May 4, 1919, with which spoken theater moved into the center of interest alongside prose; it seemed capable of illuminating everyday life, the problems of the individual and… Read More »

People’s Republic of China Part I

Communist transformation (1949-64) On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People’s Republic of China and headed the state as President of the Central Council of the People’s Government. Zhou Enlai became Prime Minister. According to the specific interpretation of Marxism-Leninism by Mao (Maoism), the party and state leadership initiated a radical transformation of state… Read More »

Chinese Theater Part I

chinese theater [ç-]. Until the introduction of spoken theater in the early 20th century, the Chinese theater was a musical theater with fixed roles. This emerged from the combination of religious ritual, courtly ceremonial dance and circus-like games as well as various kinds of musical performances. Traditionally, the position of the playwright in Chinese society… Read More »

China Ancient History Part X

From the end of the 18th century, uprisings from secret groups spread throughout the empire; in western China the sect “White Lotus” (1796–1804) dominated, in south- western China the non-Chinese Miao rose, and the Muslim population of western China (Hui) reacted in the mid-19th century with revolts to the displacement by land-hungry Chinese settlers. The… Read More »

Chinese Ancient Literature Part II

The same applies to the next epoch-making work, the “Songs of the South” (Chuci). These are traditionally set for the period before the end of antiquity and are partly ascribed to the first Chinese poet Qu Yuan (* around 340, † 278) who can be identified by name. In one case or another, however, they… Read More »

China Ancient History Part IX

Qing (Ch’ing, 1644-1911 / 12) The rise of the Tungusian Manchu, who settled in Manchuria (descendants of the Jurds who ruled northern China in the 12th and beginning of the 13th centuries) to become an East Asian great power began at the end of the 16th century with the unification of the tribes that had… Read More »

Norway and China Part I

In 2010, the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo. The award sparked a diplomatic conflict between China and Norway – a conflict unparalleled in modern China’s relations with Western countries. But just before Christmas 2016 came the message many have long hoped for : Prime Minister Solberg has been invited to… Read More »

Norway and China Part II

5: Economic consequences of the freeze Trade between Norway and China has increased considerably in recent decades, especially since China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 . In 2015, China was the third largest country of origin for imports to Norway, and number nine on the list of countries to… Read More »

What is happening in China under Xi Jinping? Part III

Popular dissatisfaction in China as a result of deteriorating air quality has become more intrusive after several serious smog alarms in many Chinese cities: In January 2013, air quality reached very high and dangerous levels for particle density «PM 2.5». These particles penetrate the lungs and bloodstream and are very small – less than 2.5… Read More »

What is happening in China under Xi Jinping? Part I

Xi Jinping became President of China in 2013. From the outset, it became clear that his government would pursue a quite different policy from its predecessor Hu Jintao – both in form and content. What is a highway to the pinnacles of power in China? What challenges does Xi and the new rulers face? How… Read More »

What is happening in China under Xi Jinping? Part II

5: Law and order – anti-corruption The focus on law and governance in Xi’s “four necessities policy” was not surprising given the government’s strong emphasis on fighting corruption, which has long threatened to reach beyond controllable levels. The issue of corruption really came to the fore as Hu was about to leave the presidency. The… Read More »

China speaks with a more powerful voice Part II

5: 2014: China became the world’s largest economy 2014 was the year when China overtook the United States and became the world’s largest economy – at least measured by purchasing power. Measured in gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, China is still low compared with the western level. This means that China still has to… Read More »

China speaks with a more powerful voice Part I

The year 2014 will be known as the year when Chinese foreign policy underwent its most marked shift since the reform and opening policy of Deng Xiaoping from the late 1970s. Less than two years after President Xi Jinping took over the helm of state, the Chinese have become far more visible in Asia, the… Read More »

Korea: How Far Do They Go? Part III

8: China’s role The Chinese do not want the North Korean regime to collapse. Not out of love for a communist neighbor, for the Juche ideology rejects Marxism-Leninism and prescribes economic, cultural and ideological independence. The regime also engages in a bizarre cult of personality around the Kim family. The Chinese support the regime because… Read More »

Korea: How Far Do They Go? Part I

In 2013, the conflict on the Korean Peninsula has intensified again. The vocabulary is extremely aggressive and the provocative actions many. Is the conflict really as threatening as it may seem at first glance? How is North Korea’s nuclear history? What are the characteristics of the conflict in Korea? What motives do the parties have?… Read More »

Korea: How Far Do They Go? Part II

5: The conflict escalates The conflict took another serious turn on 7 March 2013. At that time, the Security Council adopted new sanctions in response to the nuclear test on 12 February. North Korea then withdrew from the ceasefire agreement, cut the military communications line to Seoul, and used an even more threatening language than… Read More »

Increased Interest in the Arctic Part III

8: Asia and Arctic research In the media, before the meeting in Kiruna, the Asian countries were often described as newcomers to the Arctic and polar regions. That’s not right. Several Asian states have extensive experience in polar research. Research stations in Antarctica were established by Japan in 1957, China in 1985 and South Korea… Read More »

Chinese Ancient Literature Part I

Chinese literature [ç-], China has the longest living history of literature. The only question is when to start this story – one is dealing with the problem of defining literature. Fine literature, early historiography, and ancient philosophy are not neatly separated in China. As a result, a history of Chinese literature also includes works of… Read More »

China Ancient History Part VIII

With Zhu Yuanzhang, the despotic absolutism of the Chinese empire began, which has decisively shaped the image of China in the West. He eliminated the one and a half millennia old institution of the chancellor as head of the bureaucracy; all central and provincial authorities were directly subordinate to him. He was supported by a… Read More »

Chinese Literature Middle Ages (220–907) Part II

It was believed at the time of the Song that the decline of the Tang dynasty was due to an excessive emphasis on pure aesthetics and an excessive lack of moral orientation on the part of the individual. In the literature one tried to solve problems only in an aesthetic way. Now, after the complete… Read More »

China Ancient History Part VII

The Mongols had always come into contact with several cultural influences in their traditional settlement area. Shamanistic, Buddhist and popular religious elements combined in their religion. They were indifferent to Confucianism, at most they showed interest in popular Daoism. But other Chinese and foreign religions – Nestorian Christianity, Judaism, Islam – were tolerated, and the… Read More »

What is BRICS? Part II

According to whicheverhealth, BRICS emphasizes its openness to the outside world. China’s historical experience is unequivocal in this respect: In periods of openness, things have gone well, while in periods of introversion, things have gone badly. India opened up around 1990 and is phasing out more and more of its subsidies and safeguards. For Brazil… Read More »

What is BRICS? Part I

10 years ago, the term BRIC was launched – Brazil, Russia, India, China. In 2009, the BRIC countries met for the first time – as part of a regular cooperation – with Russia as host. The second meeting took place in Brazil in 2010, and this year it was China’s turn. South Africa was also… Read More »