According to abbreviationfinder, Vienna is the capital, largest city, cultural and political center of Austria, as well as one of its nine federal states. The metropolitan area has 2.3 million residents, a population similar to that of the city in 1914. See population of Austria.
It is located on the banks of the Danube River, in the valley of the Vienna Woods, at the foot of the first foothills of the Alps. It is literally surrounded by the federal state of Lower Austria.
The city has a long history, as it is one of the oldest capitals in Europe, which is why it has an important artistic heritage. During the 19th century it was one of the great musical capitals of the world and at the beginning of the 20th century it was aMecca for Philosophy and political debate in the West, as well as one of the main world cultural centers.
Vienna, which was initially a Paleolithic and later a Celtic settlement, was actually born as a Roman camp under the name of Vindobona. Over the centuries it would become the imperial residence and headquarters of the Habsburg dynasty, one of the most important European royal houses that ruled for more than 700 years, until 1918 over the vast Austro-Hungarian empire.
The relationship between the Habsburgs and the Ottoman Empire (and later between Austria and Turkey), was always very intense and turbulent, and numerous conflicts broke out between both powers which caused one empire to influence another in various facets.
There are scientific works dedicated to the Turkish side of Vienna and there are many houses in the capital that show, in some corner of their façade, cannon balls fired by the Ottomans during the sieges of 1529 and 1683. The definitive victory over the Turks coincided with the appearance in Vienna of the first public cafe in Europe, the work of the Polish Georg Kolschitzky who found several sacks of coffee abandoned by the Turks, appropriated them and in 1683 opened a place where he served next to the cathedral. excellent coffees.
The Viennese began to mix the drink with milk and thus the cappuccino was born, named for its color, similar to the habits of the Capuchin monks (although today the drink in Vienna is called Melange).
At that time the croissant was also born, deliberately prepared in the shape of a crescent to annoy the Turks and that was eaten as it defied the enemy. In short, we can say that the famous continental breakfast was born here.
And as for music, it is the capital of the Waltz, the dances of the debutantes of high society. The greatest musicians in history were born or lived here: Mozart, Beethoven, Ludwig and Schubert, as well as painters, artists and philosophers. And of course, another illustrious city, Sigmund Freud, inventor of psycho-analysis, an example of the incredible avant-garde that Vienna was and of the cultural vividness that still animates the city today and that makes it one of the most active European capitals..
Vienna has a continental climate, typical of the Danube Valley, influenced by its proximity to the Alps. The average annual temperature is 9.5 ° C, with an important annual oscillation, but little in terms of the daily one. The precipitations are of 644 mm, without dry months, but with a maximum in summer. The winter is very cold, with temperatures around 0 ° C and frequent frost and snow, with records of -25 ° C. Summers are mild and humid, temperatures, although not warm, can exceed 35 ° C on some occasions. The autumn and spring are highly variable in terms of temperature, rainfall and relatively abundant.
The Austrian relief, mostly mountainous (1,000 m high average), integrates the eastern foothills of the Alps and leaves only a small space (to the north and east) for the flat terrain (edge of the Hungarian plain – the Burgenland-, Danube basin). The large alpine ramifications – the Otztal massif, the Hohe Tauern (3,796 m at the Grossglockner, the highest peak in the country), the Carinthian and Styrian Alps – are frequently interrupted by the presence of numerous fertile valleys (Inn, Mur, Drave).
The Danubian sector, between the Alps (to the South) and the massifs of the Bohemian Forest (to the North), configures the most typical subalpine landscape of the country, with a succession of agricultural holdings and pastures for livestock.
The economy of the department of Vienna is characterized by the still important weight of agricultural activities. 68% of the surface of the department is devoted to agriculture, although the number of agricultural assets was divided by two during the last 15 years. Vegetable productions are predominant in the north of the department, while livestock production was rather concentrated in the southeast for sheep (68% of the cattle) and in the west for goats (10.4% of the total cattle).
The industry developed on the Poitiers-Châtellerault axis. This concentration results from the historical industrial vocation of the De Châtellerault employment basin and the decentralization carried out since the 1960s. Eleven large production establishments alone represent more than 50% of the industrial employment in the department.
Two areas of activities arise: – automobile and aeronautical mechanics – electrical and electronic construction.
Tertiary activities, in particular commerce, experienced a remarkable development with the establishment of numerous large surfaces on the outskirts of Poitiers.