Official name of the state
Republic of Albania.
As a country located in Europe according to localcollegeexplorer, Albania is bordered by Montenegro in the northwest, Kosovo in the north, Macedonia in the northeast, Greece in the southeast and south, the Ionian Sea in the southwest and the Adriatic Sea in the west. Apart from the coastal lowland, the country is criss-crossed by rugged mountain ranges. Good sandy beaches, beautiful lakes and extensive forests offer attractive contrasts.
Parliamentary republic since 1991. New constitution since the end of 1998. The legislative period is four years. Independent since 1912 (formerly Ottoman Empire).
Head of state
Bujar Nishani, since September 2013.
Head of government
Edi Rama, since September 2013.
220 V, 50 Hz. Sockets: Type C / F.
Central European Time: CET +2 (CET +3 from March 26 to October 29, 2017)
The official language is Albanian. In the southern part of the country, a minority speaks Greek. In some schools, lessons are held in Greek. Many Albanians speak Italian, some also speak French or English.
Albanian belongs to the Indo-European language family and is related to the Greek and Armenian languages. A descent from the extinct and little-known Illyrian language is suspected.
There are two major dialect groups for spoken Albanian, Gegish and Tuskish. The two dialects differ both in their sound and in their grammar and sometimes even in their vocabulary. For example, “village” means katund in Gian and fshat in Tuscan. On the other hand, there are about 10 consonants, vowels and nasal vowels that do not even appear in Tuscan. There is also no infinitive in the Tuscan dialect.
The border between the two dialect groups runs roughly along the 41st parallel. To the north of the Shkumbin River live the Gegish-speaking counterparts, south of the Tuscan-speaking Tosks. Gegisch is also spoken in Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and southern Serbia. Arbëresh, spoken in southern Italy, is a form of the Tuscan dialect.
Tuskish was used in 1972 as the basis for the development of the written Albanian language, with some Gegic elements also influencing the vocabulary and word formation.
70% Muslims (mainly Sunnis), 20% Orthodox and 10% Catholics.
Social rules of conduct
You shake hands in greeting. Traditionally, men touch each other’s heads on the sides. Salutation: Mr. (Zoti ) and Mrs. (Zonja ) with academic titles. Extensive, multiple questions about the well-being of the interlocutor and that of his family members open the conversation and are common at encounters and every telephone conversation. Knowledge of the Kanun (traditional customary law) is essential in view of the revival of old customs.
It is not common to bring flowers with home invitations. Small guest gifts, on the other hand, that are inconspicuously given are gladly accepted. Gifts usually require something in return. In the event of death, a condolence visit from acquaintances is expected. Albanians take off their shoes when they enter the house, and visitors are usually offered plastic sandals or slippers.
“Yes” and “no” are shown in a special way in Albania, and one should refrain from making spontaneous gestures with the head. “Yes”: brief shake of the head sideways. “No”: lifting of the head, underlined by a click and, if necessary, accompanied by a movement of the index finger. Any attempt to communicate in the Albanian language is received with sympathy.
It will i. General worn casual clothing. Skirt length and the extravagance of women’s fashion are no longer dictated by prudish morals. Short pants for men are acceptable both on the beach and in the city.
Public order and security have largely normalized. Nevertheless, as a tourist you should be careful. Demonstrative display z. B. of expensive jewelry should be avoided. Passports are extremely interesting for thieves, as Albanian citizens can hardly leave their country due to entry restrictions from other countries. You also have to watch out for foreign exchange, valuables, cameras, watches and coats – everything that can easily be turned into money. The hawkers on the roadside and in the bazaars clearly demonstrate which consumer goods are included. You shouldn’t take your eyes off your luggage, locked cars are not safes.
When forays through lonely streets and in remote areas or to tourist attractions away from the general public, the risk of being harassed or robbed is particularly high, especially in the dark. Women are easy victims of intrusiveness.
Smoking is widespread, and smoke-free areas in restaurants and bars are difficult to find. Smoking is prohibited in public buildings, but it is rarely observed. Long-distance buses, on the other hand, often stop smoking when traveling across the country.
In restaurants it is customary to tip 10 percent.
Homosexuality is taboo, and tenderness among homosexual couples in public is greeted with some hostility among the residents.