According to abbreviationfinder, Ankara is the capital of Turkey, the Central Anatolia region and the province of the same name. As with many ancient cities, Ankara has been known by various names throughout the centuries: the Hittites called it Ankuwash before 1200 BC. C., the Galatians and the Romans called it Ancyra and in the classical, Hellenistic and Byzantine periods it was known as Ἄγκυρα Ánkyra. It also received the name Angora or Engürü after its conquest by the Seljuks in 1073, and was so known until 1930.
Today (2012) it is a major Turkish commercial and industrial city located in central Anatolia. It is strategically located in the center of the Turkish highway and rail networks, functioning as a center for marketing agricultural products from the surrounding areas. It is also according to the population census made in 2007, the second most populous city in Turkey. See population of Turkey.
Geography and climate
Situated on a steep and rocky hill, which rises 150 meters above the plain on the left bank of the Ankara Çayi, a tributary of the Sakarya River. The city is located in one of the driest places in Turkey, surrounded by steppe vegetation, due to the harsh and sometimes extreme dry continental climate with very cold winters in which there is abundant rainfall in the form of snow and very hot dry summers., the rainy period occurs mainly during spring and autumn.
It has several museums representing the cultural identity and history of the city as well as a mausoleum dedicated to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the republic, with an adjoining museum that has a collection of the letters and writings of the Turkish hero, as well as personal objects., a collection of photographs and a wax statue of Kemal.
Other museums that we can find is the Ethnographic Museum of Ankara, it is located opposite the Opera House in Talat Paşa, in the district of Ulus. There is a collection of artifacts, Seljuk and Ottomans of the time. On the other hand, the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations (Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi) is located at the entrance of the Ankara Castle, it is an old bazaar, which has been restored and now houses a collection from the Paleolithic and Neolithic. We also have the State Museum of Art and Sculpture (Resim-Heykel Müzesi) close to the Museum of Ethnography which houses a rich collection of Turkish art from the late 19th century to the present.
The Museum of the War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı Müzesi), located in Ulus Square, was the first building of the Parliament (TBMM) of the Republic of Turkey. The War of Independence is represented here through various photographs and objects currently on display. In other exhibitions the wax figures of the former presidents of the Republic of Turkey are displayed. The TCDD Locomotive Museum is an open-air venue near the Celal Bayar Boulevard train station, which traces the history of the steam locomotive through the locomotives and artifacts on display. Also notable is the Turkish Air Forces Aviation Museum, which is located near the road to Etimesgut. The museum houses different models of aircraft that serve or have served in the Turkish Air Force (aircraft such as F-86, M-100, M-102, M-104, F-5, F-4, and as cargo aircraft, the C-160). Also on display in the museum are a Hungarian Mig-21, a Pakistani Mig-19 and a Bulgarian Mig-17.
As in all other cities in Turkey, soccer is the most popular sport in Ankara. The city has four football clubs currently competing in the Turkcell Super League: Gençlerbirliği (5th position in the 2006 -07 season), Büyükşehir Belediye Ankaraspor (7th position in the 2006-07 season) and Ankaragücü (13th in the 2006 season). -07). The fourth club Gençlerbirliği OFTAŞ amounted to participate in the Turkish Super League during the season 2007 -08 which began on August 10 2007. Ankara 19 Mayıs Stadium is the venue for football matches and has a capacity of 21,250 people. In the Turkish Basketball League, Ankara is represented by Türk Telekom BK and CASA TED Ankara Kolejliler. Ice skating and ice hockey competitions are held at Ankara Buz Pateni Sarayı.
Primary education is compulsory for primary school between the ages of 6 and 14 and enrollment in this age range was almost 100% in 2001.
Kindergarten: This is a preschool for children between the ages of 5 and 7. Although currently, there are not enough daycare centers to match the number of children in the age group. As a result, this stage is only used by a limited part of the population, mainly occupied families in cities. Games, theater, songs and customs are the main focus of this stage of education.
Primary school: Primary or elementary school offers eight years of compulsory education for children between 6 and 14. At this stage, the focus is on basic information, Turkish language, mathematics, social studies, art and music. Sometimes English and other foreign languages are taught. The curriculum is essentially the same in private and public schools, private schools add more extracurricular activities like swimming. The average number of students per classroom is 20 – 40, but in rural areas, it can be even higher. At the end of the eighth grade, students take an exam and, according to their results, are placed in different high schools.
Secondary school: This usually lasts four years, with the addition of one year for preparatory classes in a foreign language in some colleges. Students choose a foreign language – generally the choice is between English, French and German. Religious education is optional and generally a comparative study of religions rather than just Islam. Science classes are taught in the foreign language of the student’s choice.
Education is free, except for private high schools, where it can cost around $ 4,000 per year. At the end of school, after 12th grade, students are required to take the High School exam which shows that they have completed such teaching. Once they pass this exam, they need to take the OSS, an important and competitive exam whose results will determine the opportunities available at the next level of education.