Almost 53% of Kazakhstan’s population are female. Their position in political and economic leadership positions is by no means dominant and not on an equal footing in social life and on the income scale, but it is relatively good, especially in comparison with other countries in the region. This is also expressed by the various international gender indices (Gender Equity Index / GEI, Gender Index / SIGI). In the 2012 GEI, Kazakhstan even came in 33rd out of 154 ranked countries, ahead of the USA, for example. At the initiative of President Tokayev, a women’s quota is to be set in 2020 for candidacies for parliament.
Of course, these highly accumulated numbers say little about the reality of life for women and men in Kazakhstan, just as it is fundamentally problematic to make summary judgments about their general situation, because the differences between urban-rural, north-south, different nationalities and generations are big.
Historically, the Kazakh women had a relatively strong social position, and the Soviet era did something else to strengthen their position, especially in the cities of course. However, this should not hide the fact that the women bore a heavy double burden, as the traditional role model usually prevailed in the family and the female family members were naturally responsible for household and child-rearing in addition to their work. Even if the official Kazakhstan boasts of its strong women, this is still true in the majority of families today, just as March 8 is still the national holiday of women. Large mothers were taken over from the Soviet era. Unwanted pregnancies due to a lack of sexual education are still common among adolescents. Sexual assault in the workplace as well as domestic violence are a problem, divorces relatively common, also regarded as traditional or Islamic phenomena like coming bride kidnapping and polygamy especially in the rural south again strengthened before. The current code of honor often prevents rapes from being reported to the police. Yes, there is courageous attempts to end the public silence. The condemnation of the protagonist after her public reference to the issue of menstruation clearly shows the limits of the official “limit of shame”. In the summer of 2016, prostitutes went public with the demand for their work to be legalized. Even if it is on the one hand, strong women are responsible for their rights struggle, it is nevertheless on the andereren a striking increase in the number of suicides by women disturbing expression of their often problematic situation. On the other hand, there have recently been isolated reports that men suffer from the usual macho role model.
According to franciscogardening, Kazakhstan has signed a number of international gender equality agreements. According to experts, however, national legislation still needs some improvement. The reform of the maternity allowance regime has sparked vocal protests among Kazakh women. In 2015, an attempt was made to turn away from the model inherited from the Soviet era of honoring mothers with a particularly large number of children towards an orientation towards the best possible care and upbringing.
Although you can homosexuals of both sexes rely on the principle of equality in the Constitution, but in both government and parliament as well as in the population met to them as well as people with other sexual orientations with significant reservations.
Vaccinations are not required for entry and also not expressly recommended by the WHO. Immunizations against polio, measles, hepatitis A and B, TBE and rabies can be useful depending on the length and location of the stay.
Tap water should always be boiled, fruits and vegetables washed thoroughly. The (predominantly) winter smog in Almaty can be very stressful for people with sensitive airways.
Almaty and Nur-Sultan have well-trained doctors and some well-equipped clinics. In many cases, the treatment must be paid for immediately in cash. There are also pharmacies in the two capitals where you can buy common medicines (often without a prescription). Other cities are less well taken care of, in the country it is better not to get seriously ill. For all serious illnesses or operations, a return transport to Europe is recommended in any case. Therefore, in addition to foreign health insurance, repatriation insurance is also useful.
There is neither a German school abroad in Almaty nor in Nur-Sultan, but there are several international, English-speaking schools (Almaty: Miras, Haleybury, qsi, KIS; Nur-Sultan: Haleybury, qsi, Nur Orda – Turkish with English-speaking Branch). The oil town of Atyrau also has an international school. Most of them have a kindergarten or pre-school attached to them. In addition, there are schools in several cities in Kazakhstan with extended German lessons, for example in Nur-Sultan.
All schools close for three months in the summer (June, July, August).