Russia History Timeline

By | October 15, 2021

According to, Russia or the Russian Federation is the largest country on Earth. Russia can be divided into 5 main regions: European Russia, which stretches from the western border to the Ural Mountains – traditionally perceived as the border between Europe and Asia – is a huge lowland area intersected by the rivers Volga, Don and Dnieper. It is the richest region of the Russian Federation.

The Ural Mountains stretch from north to south and contain important mineral and oil deposits.

Siberia (Northern Asia) stretches from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. This huge area is rich in natural resources, but is sparsely populated due to the harsh climatic conditions.

The Caucasus region is a huge steppe region that stretches north of the mountains of the same name between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.

Parts of Russian Central Asia lie below sea level and consist of desert, steppes and mountains.

Russia is no longer a superpower, but remains a superpower. Russia is waging a war in Chechnya, with armed Muslim groups fighting for secession from Russia.


1237 – Mongol invasion begins.

1380 – The Mongols are defeated.

1547 – January 16. Ivan the Terrible becomes Tsar of Russia.

1605-1613 – The turbulent times in Russia.

1682-1725 – Peter the Great reigns, Russia becomes a great power.

1703 – The Russian city of Petersburg on the Baltic Sea is founded.

1861- The living property is abolished.

1908 – One of the strangest events in human history, which took place on the morning of June 30 at 7 o’clock, is the one about Tunguska which is the name of an area in central Siberia as well as a collective term for the three tributaries to the river Yenisei as runs there, namely Angara (Upper Tunguska), Rocky Tunguska and Lower Tunguska. The name comes from the indigenous tongue tungus who live in the area. The area is best known for the so-called Tunguska explosion in 1908, when a large celestial body fell at Rocky Tunguska. (the mystery may be claimed to be solved! Read in the link to wikipedia)

1917 – The February Revolution, in which Nikolai II abdicates, the Bolsheviks take power.

1917 – March 15. Russia’s Tsar Nikolai relinquishes power and abdicates. The country is in disarray due to world wars, strikes and riots.

1918 – The Tsarist family is assassinated and the Russian Civil War begins.

1922 – USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) is formed, consisting of the Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian and Transcaucasian Soviet republics.

1924 – Lenin dies.

1928-1932 – Collectivization of agriculture.

1940 – The Soviet Union occupies the Baltic states and then Bessarabia, now called Moldova.

1941 – Germany invades the Soviet Union.

1943 – February 2. The Germans surrender at Stalingrad to the Russians. It is Germany’s first major defeat during World War II, and up to 100,000 soldiers are taken prisoner of war. Both sides have lost about 500,000 men in the long-running battle for the city.

In July and August 1943, the Battle of Kursk was a battle between German and Russian forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (450km southwest of Moscow ) in the Soviet Union. The German offensive was codenamed Operation Citadel (German: Unternehmen Zitadelle ) and led to one of the largest armored battles in history, the Battle of Prokhorovka. The German offensive was countered by two Soviet counter-offensives, Operation Polkovodets Rumjantsev (Russian: Полководец Румянцев ) and Operation Kutuzov (Russian: Кутузов).). For the Germans, the battle was the last strategic offensive they were able to carry out on the Eastern Front. For the Soviet Union, the decisive victory for the Red Army provided the strategic initiative for the rest of the war.

1944 – January 27. The Russian city of Leningrad is liberated after being besieged by German forces since 1941. Nearly one million. residents have lost their lives during the siege.

1945 – Germany capitulates to Berlin.

1947 – February 20. Soviet Union and Finland officially conclude peace after World War II.

1950 – March 8. The Soviet Union announces that it has completed its own atomic bomb.

1953 – Stalin dies.

1956 – Khrushchev begins “de-Stalinization”.

1958 – March 27. Nikita Khruschev becomes Prime Minister of the Soviet Union after Nikolai Bulganin.

1959 – January 2. Soviet Union launches the world’s first spacecraft, the unmanned Luna I. It must pass the moon and orbit the sun.

1960 – May 1. A US U2 reconnaissance plane is shot down over Siberia in the Soviet Union. The pilot escapes and is arrested. He is sentenced to ten years in prison for espionage, but in 1962 exchanged with a Russian spy.

1961 – April 12. The 27-year-old Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space as he completes two orbits around the Earth in the spaceship Vostok I.

1964 – Leonid Brezhnev overthrows Khrushchev.

1966 – February 3. The Soviet Union makes the world’s first unmanned lunar landing with the space probe Luna 9, which radio-transmits photos of the moon’s surface to Earth.

1985 – March 11. Mikhail Gorbachev is elected new leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

1987 – January 27. Soviet Secretary-General Mikhail Gorbachev delivers a sensational six-hour speech at the Central Committee plenary session. He states, among other things, that the Soviet Union is frozen in a hopelessly outdated and corrupt political system, and at the same time launches the terms “glasnost” (openness) and “perestroika” (reforms).

1990 – April 13. The Soviets take responsibility for the murders of thousands of captured Polish officers during World War II. The shooting took place in the Katyn forests, and the Soviet Union has so far blamed the Nazis for the massacre.

1991 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union.

1993 – January 3. US President Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin have signed a historic agreement in Moscow to reduce nuclear missiles.

1994-1996 – The first Chechen war.

1995 – January 9. The 51-year-old Russian cosmonaut Valeri Poliakov has today spent 366 days aboard the space station Mir. This is a new record for staying in space.

1999 – The Second Chechen War.

March 26, 2000. Vladimir Putin is being elected as Russia’s second democratically elected president after Yeltsin resigned.

On August 12, 2000, the Russian nuclear-powered attack submarine, the Kursk, sank during an exercise in the Barents Sea. At 11.28 local time (07.28 Zulu), an explosion occurred during preparations to launch the torpedoes. The only credible report estimates it was a fault in a hydrogen peroxide-powered torpedo. It is estimated that HTP, a particularly concentrated type of hydrogen peroxide used as fuel for torpedoes, seeped through rust in the torpedo. A similar explosion was reportedly also to blame for the loss of HMS Sidon in 1955. The submarine sank in relatively shallow water, 108 meters deep, about 135 kilometers from Severomorsk

2001 – March 23. The Russian space station MIR is crashing into the Pacific Ocean on a scheduled basis , after having housed more than 100 people for various periods over 16 years. In recent years, American astronauts have also participated in the work on board.

2002 – New reform.

2004 – Putin is re-elected.

2007 – Putin’s party wins parliamentary elections.

Gorbachev wanted the pope assassinated
According to a new book, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev ordered the assassination of Pope John Paul II. KGB documents reveal that in 1979 Gorbachev signed that the KGB must use “all available means” to stop the outspoken pope who criticized communism. ( History 13/2008 )

Russia History Timeline